Source: E-mail dt. 13.11.2012
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT - HOW TO IMPLEMENT IT?
R. GEERTHY RAJA - ASSISATANT PROFESSOR
Ford motor Company operated losses between 1980and 1982, and Xerox market share dropped from 90% to 30%, Attention to quality is the main reason for the lose of these companies.For many companies TQM does not work.TQM means
TOTAL-Made up of the whole
QUALITY-Degree of excellence a product or service provides.
MANAGEMENT-Act or manner of planning, Controlling, Directing etc.
Therefore TQM is the art of managing the whole to achieve the excellence. Total Quality Management means that the organization's culture is defined by and supports the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through an integrated system of tools, techniques, and training. This involves the continuous improvement of organizational processes, resulting in high quality products and services.The main goal of TQM is “Do the right things right the first time,every time” the main objective of TQM is “TOTAL CLIENT SATISFICATION THROUGH QUALITY PRODUCTS AND SERVICES,CONTINOUS IMPROVEMENTS TO PRODUCTS,PARTNERS,SUPPLIERS.”
TQM is an approach for continuously improving the quality of goods and services Delivered through participation of individuals at all levels and functions of an organization. in the past ,large quantity of journals have been devoted to analyze the essence of TQM and how it should be implemented in organizations.especially in the 1990’s a significant volume of research was performed to investigate the practices of TQM and organizational performance. Ways of doing business are undergoing sea-change and an organization can no longer survive if it is insensitive to absorb the changes of Towards the organization’s Purpose, Mission and Values. Japanese Industry has evolved ‘Total Quality Management’ as a tool for managing excellence in their organizations which have taken them over 50 years to come to this stage. It is a process that developed over a period of time and people in Japan believe in the process. It is a rare phenomenon that an employee in a Japanese industry absents himself without prior/ timely information to his employer. This shows the faith the people have in the process of management. But how to build such a faith all around is the issue
There are many Chief Executive who believe in TQM, convinced about its relevance and potential, are enthusiastic about its implementation: but unable to connect as how to start and how to proceed to implement.
Importance of Continuous Improvement by TQM
major concept of TQM is to maintain improvement in all work, starting with high
planning and decision-making, to precise implementation of work
elements in a firm. TQM carries a base belief that mistakes can be avoided and
deficiencies prevented. With this concept, the goal of TQM is to further
develop and improve people, processes, technology, and capabilities of
employees and machines.
Continuous improvement is not focused on improving results, but how to achieve better results in the future with specific improving capabilities and developments. There are five areas of focus for capability improvement: demand, supply, technology, operations and people capability.
STEPS IN IMPLEMENTING TQM:
Step 1: Appoint a representative
· We have to identify and nominate a senior executive to coordinate TQM activities in the organization. This person should have some qualities like belief in the process, good communicator, friendly and caring, good listener, good facilitator etc. He should also have good knowledge about the organization and report directly to Chief Executive Officer (CEO). It should always be remembered that responsibility and accountability of TQM remains with Chief Executive and TQM coordinator merely helps while performing the task.
Step 2: CEO to switch on to learning
· This suggest that we should switch ourself to learning mode. We should create a liking for knowledge on TQM, participate in programs on TQM, read literature and listen to the people who have done it.· We should open our mind to see what is happening in the environment.· We should learn to face facts with smile.· We should learn to be a ‘giver’. A giver of encouragement, appreciation, motivation, guidance, information, new opportunities etc.· We should be willing to experience the process of TQM and be part of the solution.
We should develop human sensitivity. People in the organization are its greatest assets and human sensitivity is the most powerful tool to motivate them.· We should treat every one in the organization as human beings an be sensitive to their needs.
Step 3: Purify Environment
People need to identify their differences, communicate with each other and develop mutual trust. If we allow people to socialize in a group periodically, we will observe, they will talk out their differences themselves and over a period of time they will develop mutual trust and communicate openly with each other.· To facilitate this form a team of senior management people representing most of the function in the organization. This group will be the CEO’s first level of partners in promoting TQM in the organization.· Conduct a workshop on vision, current realities, contradictions and strategies for the above group.· Form task forces out of the senior management group to tackle contradictions identified in the Vision Workshop. Review performance of these task forces every month.
Step 4 : Commitment to do it
· We should demonstrate the commitment through framing the Quality Policy. Quality Policy should be practical. People should find it easy to understand and relate to their own role with it. Above all the content of Quality Policy should be visible in all our actions. The change will not take place overnight. It is a process. Once change sets in, it will blow up as ‘continuous improvement’.
Step 5 : Bring out purity of inner self
· We should conduct a purpose, mission and value workshop for senior management group. Arrive at the draft document. We should listen to the voice of inner self while drafting the document.· the document to be discussed with all the management executives and allow them to make suggestions for modifications.· People should have conviction to what is written in the document. Without conviction, there will be no commitment.· Once the draft document has been thoroughly discussed across the organization, adopt it and solemnize the values across the organization.
Step 6: Prepare people to attainment
· Prepare training plan of the people based on their needs. This should be mutually discussed and finalized.· All the people must be trained in 7-Tools of QC(quality circle). Some should be trained in advanced tools of QC. · All the people should be trained in problem solving techniques and consensus decision making. · People should also be trained to participate in suggestion schemes and QC circles.
Step 7 : Lighting the lamp
Brighten up the dark areas across the organization and identify areas of weakness requiring action.· Prepare short term and long term action plans. Focus should be on process rather than result alone.· Remember ‘Small is Beautiful’. Take only those areas where you can concentrate in the first phase.· The action plans should be mutually discussed and agreed to between the leaders and followers.
Step 8 : Empowering people
Encourage and empower people to perform but you have to lead the team yourself while executing TQM action plan.
Step 9: Have a sense of gratitude to all
Speak to various people, go to their work places, review their programs and achievements, and give encouragement to perform better.
Step 10 : Share success with all
In TQM this is the most important step and one has to freely share information across the organization, share success through appreciation of one’s contribution. Provide motivation through new challenges and the level of human sensitivity in the organization. It should always be mentioned that we can’t do it alone. We need help. People are ready to help provided they trust that their future is in safe hand. Trust can not be shared. It builds through actions. Therefore, we have to be role model to demonstrate the Purpose, Mission and Values, and create human sensitivity in the organization. The process will lead the organization to greater heights of glory.