Source: E-mail dt. 22.2.2012


Sustainable Cultural and Heritage Tourism in Regional Development of Southern Jalisco


José G. Vargas-Hernández, M.B.A; Ph.D.
Department of Administration. Centro Universitario de Ciencias Económico Administrativas Universidad de Guadalajara. Periférico Norte 799 Edificio G-201-7. Zapopan,

Jalisco C.P. 45100; México.




This study aims to propose a normative model to determine the potential of cultural tourism in the municipalities that comprise the region 6 of the State of Jalisco, territorially delimited in the South of Jalisco. Firstly, it is conducted an anlaysis to determine the demand for cultural tourism to determine the cultural tourist profile under the assumptions that tourists especially motivated by culture, tend to travel longer distances than most tourists. It discusses the motivations and satisfactions of cultural tourists to establish the potential market in accordance with the characteristics of the target market in the Southern region of Jalisco. Any operation of cultural tourism companies should make the strategic diagnosis, so that explains the use of SWOT analysis as a tool for strategic planning of cultural tourism enterprises. Finally, we propose the development strategies of cultural tourism in this region of Southern Jalisco.


Keywords: Regional development, tourism companies, Southern Jalisco, cultural tourism

JEL: D20, L200, L230, 0100, 0120, 0130, Q010, Q500, Q560, Q570, R300, Z100


1.                  Introduction


There is an increasing awareness of culture, arts, festivals, heritage sites natural and cultural, and folklore. Cultural diversity is the base of cultural and heritage tourism. Cultural tourism has been at the center of the tourism industry in Europe and now other countries are approaching to develop their own activities (Nzama, Magi, & Ngcobo 2005). Cultural tourism is a tourism product by itself and can have high contributions to regional economic development. Development implies the design, marketing and promotion of new cultural and heritage tourism products and activities while creating a safe and user-friendly atmosphere for visitors and local communities.


Despite that the Southern Region of the State of Jalisco in México is considered one of the most culturally rich in manifestations and expressions in Latin American literature, painting, etc., cultural tourism is almost non- existent. Local communities tend not to be actively interested in cultural tourism related issues and do not understand what the benefits could be. Besides, there exists a lack of reliable data on cultural tourism for the Southern Region of Jalisco.


Cultural tourism is neither common nor universal. Cultural tourism may not be considered as part of the core interests of an organization, government or community, but they appreciate and understand the consequences and possibilities of tourism (Jamieson, 1998). There is also scarce data and information on practice of cultural tourism activities. Social dynamic changes occurring in the Southern Region of Jalisco, make difficult to obtain useful information to be a reliable input for the design, implementation and effectiveness of cultural tourism policies.

The objective of this study is to address the lack of cultural tourism activities and infrastructure on the Southern Region of Jalisco. An aim of this exploratory study is to collect inputs on whether the Southern Region of Jalisco can be transformed into a cultural tourism destination. The concept of cultural tourism can be formulated after understanding the cultural activities offered by a community and considered as an asset to the regional economic development. Cultural tourism is an option to create employment, to improve the quality of life and poverty eradication initiatives.


As a marketing strategy, cultural tourism is one of the latest buzzwords to attract visitors to cultural sites. Cultural tourism destinations offering cultural products and services linked by geography, townships, folklore, history, celebrations, art experiences and performance, can be marketed to local and foreign visitors. Cultural tourism in the Southern Region of Jalisco can offer potential benefits to regional economic development and to visitors as well, because it has the resources. An integrated approach involving all stakeholders must be inclusive and participative to ensure sustainable, holistic and efficient cultural tourism ventures.


The term of cultural tourism is heavily influenced by professional approaches to be referred more as a concept than as a particular set of objects, articles or products. The World Tourism Organization (WTO) defines tourism as comprising the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes (WTO, 2000:4). Cultural tourism is defined as the movements of persons for essentially cultural motivations, which includes study tours, performing arts, cultural tours, travel to festivals, visits to historic sites and monuments, folklore a pilgrimages (WTO, 1985).


The concept of cultural tourism encompasses a wide range of views embracing a full range of human expressions and manifestations that visitors undertake to experience the heritages, arts, lifestyles, etc. from people living in cultural destinations. Heritage tourism is usually considered to be cultural tourism. Heritage tourism: refers to tourists visiting places of traditional, historical and cultural significance with the aim of learning, paying respect to recreational purposes (Nzama, et al., 2005). 


The term cultural tourism encompasses historical sites, arts and craft fairs and festivals, museums of all kinds, the performing arts and the visual arts and other heritage sites which tourists enjoy to visit in pursuit of cultural experiences (Tighe, 1985). Heritage tourism as a synonymous of cultural tourism, is an experiential tourism related to visiting preferred landscape, historic sites, buildings or monuments and seeking an encounter, involvement and stimulation with nature or feeling part of the history of a place (Hall & Zeppel, 1990).


A cultural tourist is a person who stays more than 40 kilometers away from home for at least one night and has attended a cultural venue, which will include visiting an art gallery, museum, library, music concert, opera and a cinema (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1997). Hall (1998) defines cultural tourism as tourism that focuses on the culture of a destination, the lifestyle, heritage, arts industries and leisure pursuits of the local population.


Cultural tourism is related to the cultural aspects that includes the customs and traditions of people, their heritage, history and way of life. The International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) defines cultural tourism as “a name that means many things to many people and herein lies its strength and its weakness” (McKercher and Cros, 2002:24).  Cultural tourism theory is only beginning to debate issues of gender specialization (Aitchson, 2003).


Cultural tourism refers to travel that is directed towards providing opportunities and access to visitors to experiencing the arts and crafts, museums, heritage, festivals, music, dance, theaters, literature, historic sites and buildings, landscapes, neighborhoods and special character of local communities. Cultural tourism relates to the temporary short-term movement of people to cultural destinations outside the place of residence and work, and where their activities at these destinations or facilities cater for their recreation needs (Keyser, 2002). Cultural tourism associates the word "tourist and cultural attraction" with the tangible and intangible cultural heritage. Cultural tourism is the attendance by inbound visitors to one or more cultural attractions such as festivals, fairs, museums, art galleries, history buildings and craft workshops (Bureau of Tourism Research, 2004).


Ivanovic (2008) and Cooper, Fletcher, Fyall, Gilbert & Shepherd (2008) sustain that the greatest motivator for travel is to understand culture and heritage, both emerging as contributing to economic development. Ivanovic (2008) argues that cultural and heritage tourism is a recent development in the tourism activities, and with ecotourism are emerging as the predominant forms of tourism and replacing sun-lust mass tourism. Cultural attractions and events play a key role in cultural tourism and hospitality destinations to entice visitors (George, 2001). Cultural tourism is traveling to experience and to participate in vanishing lifestyles that lie within human memory (Goeldner & Ritchie, 2009). 


The aim of cultural tourism policy is to influence and attract visitors (Williams and Shaw, 1991:263). Tourists with special interest in culture corresponds to the segment of "cultural tourism", ie., size and value are directly attributable to the country's cultural values that encourage tourists to take a trip. Tourists with occasional interest in culture belong to other tourism segments (CESTUR). A special program of incentives for tourism related to culture or values must recognize contributions that tourism can have for culture and vice versa, to capitalize on the positive and generate synergies for the development of both sectors.


Within the designing and developing process, cultural tourism may take many forms. Sharma (2004) adds to the cultural resources debate advocating the economic benefits of developing programs, resources and facilities for the benefit of local communities, creating a balance between the economic imperatives and positive and negative impacts.


Cultural tourism activities may have an economic impact on regional development by creating employment and improving the standards of life. Hanekom, & Thornhill (1983:110) describe the activities of cultural tourism as consisting of phenomena such as formulation of policy making, planning and organizing the structure, methods and procedures, recruiting, training, developing and motivating personnel,  budgeting and financing operations. The philosophical principles of the tourism discipline must be reconsidered to re-evaluate the fundamentals of cultural tourism.


Cultural and heritage tourism can be considered as a dynamic activity developed through physical experiences, searching and celebrating what is unique and beautiful, represented by our own values and attributes which are worthy to preserve and to inherit to descendents in such a way that communities can be proud of them.


2.                  Theoretical background and literature review

Theory building and development is needed in order to use it as a foundation for an explanation and understanding of the normative model on cultural tourism for the Region of Southern Jalisco. Theory for cultural tourism has been developed to explain, analyze, evaluate and predict the related phenomena (Moulin, 1989, 1990). However, a cultural tourism theoretical framework to sustain the practice and activities requires availability of data on infrastructure, resources and skills.


Easton (1979) developed a normative model of cultural tourism emphasizing the external environments serving the inputs that may influence the goal-achievement, such as the political, economic, socio-cultural, legal, environmental, educational, health, statutory policies, demographics and technological environment, although the numbers and types of possible environments may be unlimited (Ferreira, 1996:403). Each environment requires the adaptation of the conversion mechanism (Easton, 1965: 131-132; Ferreira, 1996:403).


After the goal is achieved, the inputs formed by the original external environment generate new needs to be satisfied by achieving a new goal (Easton, 1965:128-129; Ferreira, 1996:404; Cloete and Wissink, 2000:39). An opposing argument underlies conserving and protecting the integrity of the cultural tourism resources, by monitoring overcrowding, overuse of the resource and environmental pollution (McDonald, 1999).


Cultural and heritage tourism brings significant economic benefits and development to cultural and heritage sites, townships and communities. An empirical research conducted by Besculides, Lee and McCormick (2002) using a benefits-based approach to examine the perceptions of cultural tourism by Hispanic and non-Hispanic residents, showed that Hispanics felt strongly that living along a cultural tourism byway provide cultural benefits and have greater concern for its management.


The philosophical approach to cultural tourism of the stakeholders, providers and policy makers shapes the values and norms of the normative model oriented to develop effective policy around cultural tourism. Local communities developing and promoting cultural and heritage tourism may need as a frame of reference an effective implementation of local and national policies. Cultural and heritage tourism products and services development and promotion require planning and implementing on the basis of policies. Philosophical principles of cultural tourism are required to sustain the design and implementation of a normative model aimed to promote regional economic development policies. The literature on cultural tourism policy is relevant in developing a normative framework. There is a need to develop a policy framework for cultural heritage tourism.


The cultural tourism theory “Creative cities” recommends investing in cultural and heritage goods. Ximba (2009) analyzed and examined the “variables and principles such as understanding of cultural tourism, development and conservation of culture, provision cultural facilities, participation in cultural tourism, application of tourism policies and practices, and the benefits of cultural and heritage tourism”. Cultural tourism is based on the participation in deep cultural experiences, whether, intellectual, psychological, aesthetic and emotional (Russo, and van der Borg, 2002) and as specialized cultural tourism focuses on a small number of geographic sites, townships, cultural unities and entities.


The normative model enables to arrange data and information on cultural tourism activities in such a way that can provide the bases to develop a theoretical framework for cultural tourism. Normative theory is concerned with phenomena and questions regarding the role assumed by government and in general, the public sector (Hanekom & Thornhill, 1983:71).


A normative model of sustainable cultural tourism developed by Ismail (2008) proposes a normative input-output model with an implementation mechanism to ensure sustainable cultural tourism facilitating initiatives for regional development by creating employment and poverty alleviation. The approach of sustainable cultural and heritage tourism development is aimed to improve the environment by meeting the needs of the present communities without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED, 1987:8). Sustainable cultural and heritage tourism development requires the best-practices (Magi & Nzama, 2002) to meet the needs of present guest visitors and host local communities while protecting and fostering enhanced opportunities for future generations.


A sustainable cultural tourism contributes to community development if the tourism stakeholders and business are efficient, fair and environmentally oriented. MacDonald and Lee (2003) examined the cultural rural tourism on a framework considering the roles of culture in community-base partnerships. Their findings suggest that culture in rural tourism development is a valuable resource and community-based partnerships may be very effective.

Cultural tourism enhances local community identity and esteem. It provides the opportunity for greater understanding and communication between people of diverse backgrounds (Lubbe, 2003). Sustainable cultural and heritage tourism development is based on the assumption that resources and facilities are finite, limited, some are not renewable, experience degradation and exhaustion, cannot continue to growth to meet the needs of the mass tourism and a growing population (SARDC, 1994). 


The practice of principle of sustainability of cultural and heritage tourism development is the requirement to share the benefits on a permanent basis between the visitors and residents of local communities. To overcome some problems associated with cultural tourism development and these include to take advantage of all the opportunities, know-how, financial support, community co-participation, etc., to maximize the benefits. Community participation in cultural and heritage tourism development should become a practice as the core of a people-centered approach to incorporate them in the decision making process on the development of cultural and heritage resources and in sharing all the benefits (Magi & Nzama, 2008).


Participants in cultural tourism activities expect to get enjoyment, satisfaction or fulfillment from the experience (Shivers 1981). McKercher and Du Cros (2003) test a cultural tourism typology represented by five benefit-based segments tested against a variety of trip, demographic, motivational, preferred activity, awareness, cultural distance and activity variables. They found differences between the groups and suggested that the model presented may be effective in segmenting the cultural tourism market.


Co-participation in decision-making, ownership and benefits of all stakeholders involved in sustainable cultural and heritage tourism is the core of the encounter, experience and enjoyment of resources and opportunities available to the tourist or leisure seeker (Torkildsen 2007).


Cultural and heritage tourism may be a tool to preserve the culture of host communities. The sustainable cultural and heritage tourist policies must focus and norm activities and best-practices oriented to the restoration, enhancement and conservation of resources for both present and continuing future use and enjoyment by visitors and local people (Keyser, 2002). The maintenance, conservation and preservation’s level of resources is related to the level of cultural tourism infrastructure and facilities. 


The research undertakes an in-depth literature search to extract a set of normative criteria for cultural tourism and conducted an empirical qualitative survey. From the results of this research, finally a normative model of cultural tourism was designed. The aim of the normative model for sustainable cultural tourism is to facilitate the analysis, design and formulation of cultural tourism policy initiatives. Cultural tourism theory based on normative criteria focuses on formulation, design and implementation of cultural tourism policies. The political external environment influences the governmental tourism policy which in turn, may have an impact on the development of a normative model for cultural tourism. Cultural tourism theory based on normative criteria is necessary for the formulation of cultural tourism policies oriented towards the improvement of regional economic development.


The aim of any cultural tourism policy oriented to the regional development is to influence and attract visitors (Williams and Shaw 1991:263-264) through the generation of demand and the provision of tourism services. Richards (1996) conducted international research on cultural tourism demand and supply and found a rapid increase in both the production and consumption of cultural heritage tourism attractions.


The normative criteria incorporated in the model may be the framework of reference of the external macro environment which in turn may influence the social cultural tourism policy. Social cultural tourism factors which influence the external environment can be determined by implementing an appraisal system which benefits all the stakelholders. The implementation of the normative framework for cultural tourism is dependent of the commitment of tourism stakeholders, government agencies, communities, etc., to play their corresponding roles.


Thus, the stakeholders in cultural tourism, communities, government agencies, municipal governments, etc., hold the responsibility to implement initiatives to develop infrastructure, cultural facilities, cultural tourism attractions, accommodation facilities, etc. The normative model is appropriate to describe, explain and analyze the activities of cultural tourism in order to design, develop, promote and implement policies oriented towards to create employment and improve better quality of life conditions. A normative model of cultural tourism can be useful to develop strategies and formulate policies to frame the execution of some relevant proposals, recommendations and projects. A normative model for cultural tourism on the Southern Jalisco, flexible and dynamic as a tool, assists in providing the methodological criteria and procedures, policies and strategies to promote regional economic development. 


3. Methods


Research on a normative framework for cultural tourism is deemed necessary to address the current dysfunctional economic development of the Sothern Region of Jalisco. A systems approach can be used for the purpose of analyzing and developing a normative framework for cultural tourism (Bayat and Meyer, 1994:83-10). The aim of the normative model for cultural tourism is to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities in all factors such as infrastructure, facilities, skills, etc. and above all the design and implementation of cultural tourism policies on the Southern Jalisco.         

The normative is designed as a tool for aiming to change the current situations, policies and strategies into a more dynamic, functional and flexible proposal for regional economic development. The use of a normative model for cultural tourism requires qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis as an approach to conduct research.An analysis of the macro external environment includes the microenvironment, macro environment and marketing environment, representing external forces influencing the decision making processes and goal achievement such as economic, social, political, public policies, demographic, legal, technological, etc.                                                     


The micro-internal environment of a normative framework for developing, promoting and sustaining cultural tourism influence suppliers, distribution channels, customers, competitors, community values, local politics, legal requirements, etc. The guiding principles and policies developed by federal and local governments may be the core criteria for designing and developing the normative framework of reference for cultural tourism on the Southern Jalisco.                                                                            

The goal of the normative model for cultural tourism is to attain effective and efficient criteria and performed to design, develop, maintain, promote and enhance the development of cultural tourism. The feedback mechanism of the normative model senses any possible deficiency and deviation of the ongoing outputs coming from the de normative model of cultural tourism in relation to the macro and micro environmental variables and factors. 


4.                  Motivations and satisfaction of cultural tourists


Both domestic and international tourists, the attributes relating to architecture and living culture are key motivators. The place of these factors between nationals and foreigners is reversed, with the themes related to culture alive for those of more international tourists and those related to tangible assets most important to the national tourist. The tourist interested in culture, is also seeking money, climate, landscape and activities that can meet the members of the group that travels.


Mexican cultural tourists are sensitive to the cost-benefit purpose, value destinations around the variety and quality of activities offered, is willing to spend on experiences, but not in services that do not provide clear differences with respect to others who have a interesting style. The economic cost factors, emotional and physical are crucial. The relationship between them and their benefits must be proportionate. A cultural tourist destination and to provide cultural activities featuring comfort and additional options for leisure and entertainment, is more likely to attract tourists or occasional specialized than other destinations. Considered cultural tourists in general are scarce pleasant and attractive cultural offerings for children and adolescents and that failure to appreciate the teaching culture.


5. Operations of the business of cultural tourism


In cultural tourism are companies from various sectors of production. In addition to the tourism and cultural sector, significantly involved companies and institutions involved in urban development and the service sector in general and support areas.


Cultural Tourism Sectors


The cultural tourism agencies include public, private and social, this diversity of actors makes the administration has a greater complexity than other fields of tourism.

In specific areas of tourism and culture whose presence turns excel is very important in those places where the activity takes place: Hotels, tour operators, museums, craft stores, restaurants, tourist guides, cultural sites managed by the INAH, etc.


In the relations of the actors in the system, the basic structure of marketing generates harmonious relations between private actors in the tourism sector. In addition to these key players, cultural tourism has other such as: Cultural tourism players, municipal authorities, state and federal, bodies promoters culture, administration of sites and monuments, nongovernmental organizations, universities, schools and institutes, business of entertainment, carriers, tourists guides, travel agencies, independent travel promoters, associations and Clubs


5. SWOT corporate Analysis


In general, the business outlook is favorable for the development of cultural tourism requires a better use of cultural resources to strengthen the identity of the destinations and the country as there are more strengths than weaknesses. Need greater certainty about the path to take to seize the assets and improve the participation of Cultural tourism companies, there is a willingness to undertake the necessary improvements to enhance the development of these communities and tourism enterprises.


Recognized six areas for action in proposing a series of strategic guidance and tactical approaches that will strengthen and enhance the relationship of tourism activities in their cultural side:


A. Revaluation of the relationship between culture and tourism

B. Systematization of planning and control instruments

C. Organizational strengthening

D. Optimization of cultural heritage management

E. Enriching the cultural tourism offer

F. Rethinking the promotion and marketing


5.                  Design of cultural tours circuits in Southern Jalisco


A. Cultural tourism circuit "footsteps in the land of great artists ...."

Municipalities that comprise the cultural tour: Zapotlán El Grande, Sayula, San Gabriel Tolimán, Zapotitlan de Vadillo

Cultural scene

First Day


1. City Tour Historic Center of Painting and Sculpture Guzman City Hall, illustrious men Columnario Zapotlán the Great House where he was born Juan José Arreola Lazaro Cardenas street, Mendoza Portal architecture, temple architecture and sculpture of the Tabernacle, painting, sculpture and architecture of the Third Order temple and former convent, painting, architecture and sculpture of the cathedral, market Paulino Navarro, Portales, birthplace of painter José Clemente Orozco, architecture Town Hall, Palace of the cob architecture, snack restaurant above the Portal Hidalgo , backyards overlooking the Portal Hidalgo. (Estimated time: 4 hours). From 12 to 23 October you can visit the Fair with all its traditions and customs, which culminates with the floats or litter.

Suggested meal in some of the excellent restaurants of Ciudad Guzmán

2. Sayula Tour: Legend of the poem of the soul Sayula and location of the main places referred to, Downtown and portals Sayula, visit the Center of the Immaculate Conception Parish and a former convent, visit the Museum and Casa de la Cultura Juan Rulfo, visit the house of Handicrafts, cutlery shop visit of Ojeda, Juan Rulfo birthplace, architecture and paintings of the Santuario de Guadalupe and a former Franciscan convent. The carnival was staged on Shrove Tuesday to end on Ash Wednesday. (Estimated time 4 hours)

Suggested dinner with typical food and sleep in Sayula in La Casa de los Patios.

Second day


Typical breakfast is suggested Sayula


3. Travel in San Gabriel

On the way to San Gabriel Sayula suggested references to places mentioned in the works of Juan Rulfo: Apango, Apulco, etc.; Apango visit. View of Llano Grande, Puerto Los colimotes view, visit the Historic Center of San Gabriel, paintings and sculptures of Trujillo Enrrique the Lord of Mercy Amula, visit the house where Juan Rulfo, visit house where Jose Mojica, priest, composer and singer, a visit to the stones with petroglyphs Telcampana visit, visit to the former estate of Juan Rulfo Apulco where he lived most of his childhood, can be visited if it coincides in time, the Feasts of the Lord is Amula held from 11 to 19 January each year, the feasts of the Lord of Mercy, (Estimated time, 6 hours)

Lunch and dinner is suggested typical local food and stay overnight in San Gabriel.

Third day


3.      Tour of Toliman, and Vadillo Zapotitlan.

It is suggested breakfast at Toliman


Visit the Cerro Encantado and Petacal, Crescent View, visit the Museum in Toliman. Visit the Wall of the Temple of the Assumption. If you match 6 to August 15, you can join the feast of Our Lady of the Assumption., To appreciate their dances and traditions. Typical meal is suggested.

Visit the Historical Center of Zapotitlan Vadillo presentation is suggested poems and legends that abound in the folklore of this place, as the Cerro Chino. If it coincides in time can participate in the Feast of the Virgin of Guadalupe from 1 to January 15 and the feasts of Mary Magdalene on 22 July, the religious feast day image borne in procession through the streets ornate people, parade floats, music and dance


Return to Cd Guzman, cultural tourism circuit ends.

B. Cultural tourism circuit "at the feast eternal"


Municipalities comprising the tour: Tonila, Tuxpan Zapotiltic

Cultural scene


Tour the city of Tonila: Breakfast and visit to the Ex Hacienda La Esperanza, visit Tonila Parish Temple is a replica colonial style carved stone used for construction, has seen Swiss watch among the few of its kind, Temple San Marcos, modernist baroque and Byzantine motifs. If it is agreed at the time, you can participate in religious festivals in honor of the Virgin of Guadalupe is celebrated from 3 to 12 December in the municipal and San Marcos. (Estimated time: three hours)


Tour the city of Tuxpan: Visit the Historic Center of Tuxpan, Atrial view of the Cross dating from the sixteenth century and visit the parish church, Indian House visit, shows typical food of Tuxpan (The Cuaxala) Celebration Indian wedding where the groom dressed in beautiful and intricate costumes, dance performances and Paixtles Chayacates Indians, in the afternoon visit to the Museum Melquiades Rubalcaba. If it matches on dates, visitors can participate in the Regional Competition that takes place Rattles 23 to May 31 and coincides with the festivities of the Lord of Forgiveness. (Estimated time: 4 hours)

Tour the city of Zapotiltic: Visit the Historic Center of Zapotiltic, visit the Temple of the former estate of Huescalapa. If the dates coincide with the celebrations of the Lord of Forgiveness in the first two weeks of May, visitors can participate.


C. Cultural tours "townhips on the lake’s rivera”.


Municipalities comprising the tour: Gómez Farías, Atoyac, Teocuitatlán, Techaluta, Amacueca.

Cultural scene.


Farias Township: Visit the Historic Center of San Sebastian, visit the Artisan House (tule crafts)., Participation in workshops. Visitors can participate if they coincide with the festival of Candlemas on February 2, the Feast of St. Andrew from the 20th to November 30th and the festivities of Our Lady of Refuge on July 4. (Estimated time 1 hour)
Atoyac municipality, visit the Historical Centre and view the paintings of Painting. Box .- Painted by Antonio Zamarripa Castellón in 1968. Craft Site visits belts, participation in craft workshops .. If it matches on dates, visitors can witness the Health Festival on Friday of Lent and Carnival, which takes place in the month of February. (Visit estimated at one hour).
City of Corona Teocuitatlán: Visit to the Ex Hacienda San José de Gracia and the Indian Pantheon. Are recommended to present the legends about these two scenarios. Visit the historic center of Teocuitatlán, visits to places of crafts and antiques collector blankets, if we agree the dates when you visit the site, you can witness the festivities of the Virgin of Guadalupe from 1 to December 12. (Estimated time 3 hours)

Suggested meal in a restaurant Teocuitatlán.

Techaluta Township: Municipal Palace Tour 1878 coincides in time If visitors can witness and participate in the most important celebrations in the town that bullfighting are held from 9 to 16 September; religious holidays in honor of St. Sebastian Martyr taking place from 11 to 20 January, and the Pitaya Annual Fair every May for approximately 8 to 15. (Estimated time: one hour).


Amacueca Township: Visit the historic center of Amacueca, visit the ruins of the Franciscan monastery, XVII century building facade with twisted columns and gilded altarpiece. Visit to the Holy Name of Jesus, carved wooden sculpture of the sixteenth century. If we agree on the dates you can participate in bullfights on the third Sunday of January, the celebrations of the Holy Name of Jesus on January 8 and carnival that takes place in the month of February.

IV. Cultural tours


Municipalities comprising the tour: Torres Zacoalco, Atemajac de Brizuela, Tapalpa

Cultural scene


Zacoalco de Torres: Visit the Historic Center of Zacoalco Torres, visit equipales craft centers, participation in craft workshops, representing Indian wedding. If there is agreement on dates, visitors can witness the Feast of the Virgin of Guadalupe on January 12, the Lord of Health on August 6, and the feasts of St. Francis of Assisi on October 14. (Estimated time: three hours)
Atemajac de BRIZUELA: Visit the Historical Center of Brown Atemajac. If there is coincidence of dates, visitors can participate in the festivities of Our Lady of the Defense of 6 to 9 September, the pilgrimage of the Virgen de la Defense 7 and October 8 and the festivities of St. Bartholomew on 24 August. It is suggested to eat at this place the typical food, lamb to the shepherd with punch and sweet fruit preserves.

TAPALPA: Visit the historic center of Tapalpa, typical of mountain people, visit the Chapel of the Soledad, visiting the Casa de la Cultura (Parish of San Antonio de Tapalpa) Juanacatlán Temple and Temple of Our Lady of Mercy, visit to the paper mache crafts, visit the Hostal de la Casona del Manzano, visit the Water House, a visit to the Chapel of the Immaculate Conception, visit the Chapel of Solitude.


6.                  Business development strategies of cultural tourism


1. Improving the coordination of the various factors involved in the activity for development programs, marketing, participation in the conservation and enhancement of cultural heritage in the areas: intersectional and interdisciplinary.

2. Improve mechanisms for training of Human Resources.

3. Facilitate the development of small and medium companies and grocery services to strengthen the system as a whole

4. Strengthen the bond of action of the companies with the conservation and enhancement of cultural heritage

5. Encourage companies to provide information to tourists on cultural activities that exist in the destination, and to establish awareness programs for the care of heritage and respect for local customs

6. Promoting and using cultural tourism to differentiate the existing tourist facility, opening new market opportunities

7. Diversify mechanisms to promote and market segments with an interest in culture

8. Harnessing the elements of cultural identification of each region to increase differentiation of Mexican companies in domestic and international markets

9. Promote use of sustainable technology (alternative energy, recycling, etc.).


7.                  Conclusions and recommendations


The Sothern Region of Jalisco has important potential elements and resources identified as opportunities and strengths to facilitate the development and promotion as a cultural tourism destination. This paper identifies that there is a need for a theoretical framework to design a normative model of sustainable cultural tourism policy in the Southern Region of the state of Jalisco, México. Cultural tourism stakeholders and suppliers in the Southern Jalisco can benefit from the implementation of a normative model to promote regional economic development through the creation of employment and poverty alleviation.


A normative model for cultural tourism requires the active participation from the tourist stakeholders, business, government agencies and the community, from inception phase until implementation of a program for developing the potential as a cultural tourism destination. The design and implementation of cultural and heritage tourism programs must promote, preserve and enhance the communities´ cultures, folklore, arts, artifacts, etc. Active participation of all cultural tourism stakeholders, governmental agencies and local communities in decision making process, not only legitimates the activities, but provides experience and grounding to design and implement the strategies to pursue the effectiveness of cultural tourism policies (Blench, 1999) and promote responsible and sustainable cultural tourism.


The normative model establishes a set of normative criteria as an approach to achieve functional cultural tourism on the Southern Jalisco. Variables identified in the normative model as weaknesses, strengths, opportunities and threats can assist tourism stakeholders, government agencies, business and the community as a whole, to design and develop cultural tourism products and services and offerings for national and international tourists participating in the cultural market. Any development or promotion of a cultural tourism product needs to be well designed and implemented on the basis of the existing cultural tourism policies. A permanent approach on the practice of sustainable cultural and heritage development is a requirement to spill over the benefits to the local communities.


Cultural tourism brings the best benefits to the development of local community after an effective implementation of cultural tourism policies. The effectiveness of cultural tourism policies must be assessed. Local communities must attempt to manage cultural tourism resources whilst linking them to the development and economic growth.


Local and municipal government plays an important role with respect to cultural tourism for the Region of Southern Jalisco. Besides, the planning, development, promotion, marketing and implementation of these products and services can sustain cultural tourism as an economic activity that can improve standards of living for people on the Southern Jalisco.


The design and development of a normative model is concomitant to a set of recommendations for implementation of cultural tourism on the Southern Jalisco. A cultural tourism must offer intrinsic value for tourism consumption while adding value to local cultural tourism resources. Cultural tourism must offer to fulfill the expectations of tourists with memorable experiences. Cultural tourism on the Sothern Jalisco can be a development tool for creating better conditions of employment, opportunities for economic development and improvement of the standards of life for the people living in the communities. The recommendations here offered are only an attempt to change the current dysfunctional situation into an efficient system of cultural tourism management based on a normative model.


The development of cultural tourism requires cultural heritage attractions in order to achieve the objectives and preservation of the tangible and intangible cultural heritage. The scope of cultural tourism for the Southern Jalisco may include ethnic tourism and historical tourism, comprising the observation, participation and sharing cultural expressions and lifestyles, dance and music performance, religious ceremonies, visual arts exhibitions, visiting monuments, sites and buildings, etc. Cultural tourism initiatives may succeed in consolidating the ethnographic “gaze” if it designs and develop tour routes involving living and interactive experiences in real life in the townships and cultural houses or centers.


Cultural tourism on the Sothern Jalisco can be an opportunity for the local communities to market and promote overseas experience-periods holidays to share and assimilate cultural values and life experiences taking advantage of the weather conditions and the beautiful natural landscape. The design of cultural tourism routes is necessary supported by the necessary to improve the infrastructure. To facilitate promotion and marketing of cultural tourism on the Southern Jalisco it is required easy access to a tourism information management system.


Local tourism information centers at the municipalities play an important role on spreading, guiding and providing assistance to visitors, rendering products and services alive and meaningful and sharing responsibilities with tour and guide operators. Also the roles that play communities, owners of facilities, etc. are vital on these matters. With respect to development, maintaining, promotion and marketing cultural tourism on the Region Southern Jalisco, it is an imperative to design, formulate and implement a public policy-making process.


This paper on cultural tourism addresses the critical shortages of resources, infrastructure and skills amongst tourism stakeholders, business, practitioners, communities, etc., and offers some strategies as recommendations to improve the regional market with new cultural products and services. A differentiation between cultural tourism resources development and cultural production is essential for the design and implementation of cultural tourism strategies.


The implementation of a normative model leads to the development of cultural tourism infrastructure, develop entrepreneurial skills of the community, create opportunities to attract foreign investors and funding agencies, design and implement marketing and promotional strategies, etc., all of which can contribute to the regional economic development of Southern Jalisco.


Fostering cultural tourism on the Southern Jalisco has a positive impact on developing infrastructure, offering diversified products and services in the cultural tourism market, creation of employment, development of entrepreneurial skills of the community, improvement of living conditions, etc. But most important, the normative model of cultural tourism have an impact on the spatial framework to address the sustainability of cultural tourism on cultural sites and attractions and economic development for the communities creating employment and improving better standards of life for the people.                                                                                                                     

This analysis may be the start point for further research about cultural and heritage tourism development, marketing and promotion on the Region Southern Jalisco.




  1. Aitchson, C. (2003) Gender and Leisure: Social and Cultural Perspectives. London: Routledge.
  2. Australian Bureau of Statistics (1997). Domestic Cultural Tourism in Australia www.dcita.gov.au.
  3. Bayat, M.S. and Meyer, I. (Eds). 1994. Public Administration: Concepts, Theory and Practice. Halfway House: Southern.
  4. Besculides, A., Lee, M. E. and McCormick, P.J. (2002) “Resident’s perceptions of cultural benefits of tourism” Annals of Tourism Research (2002) Volume: 29, Issue: 2, Pages: 303-319.
  5. Blench, B. D., (1999). Sustainable development in Africa.  London: Overseas Development Institute.
  6. Bureau of Tourism Research (2004). Economic Impact of Cultural Tourists in Australia http://www.culturaldata.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/58358/Economic_Impact_of_Cultural_Tourists_in_Australia.pdf. [06 November 2007].
  7. Bywater, M. (1993). The Market for Cultural Tourism in Europe, EIU N. 6.
  8. CESTU (2002). El turismo cultural en México. Centro de estudios de la Secretaría de Turismo.
  9. Cloete, F. & Wissink, H. (eds). Improving Public Policy . Pretoria: Van Schaik.
  10. Cooper, C.; Fletcher, J.; Fyall, A.; Gilbert, D. & Shepherd, R. (2008). Tourism: Principles and Practice. New York: Prentice Hall.
  11. Easton, D. (1965). A Framework for political analysis. London: Prentice-Hall Inc.
  12. Encarnación, S. (2008). Los Famosos Equipales de Zacoalco. Colección Espejo Diario.
  13. FACUN. (2010). Tras las huellas de Juan Rulfo. Capturado de http://www.papelesdeviaje.com/facundo46.htm
  14. Ferreira, I.W. (1996). A normative model for managing orientation procedures for effective and efficient public personnel management in post – apartheid South Africa (Unpublished dissertation presented for the doctor administrationis degree at the University of Durban Westville (now University of KwaZuklu Natal
  15. George, R. (2001): Marketing South African Tourism and Hospitality.  Cape Town: Oxford University Press.
  16. González Castolo. F. (2010). Danza de la Conquista de Hernán Cortés. H. Ayuntamiento de Cd. Guzman, Jalisco.
  17. González Castolo. F. (2010). Leyenda de la diosa Tzaputlatena. H. Ayuntamiento de  Cd. Guzman, Jalisco.                                                 
  18. González Castolo, F. (2010). Leyenda Tzapotleca (La Laguna de Zapotlán). H. Ayuntamiento de Cd. Guzman, Jalisco.
  19. González Castolo, F. (2010). Leyenda tzapotleca II (Las Piedras del Sochule o de "Los  Compadres"). H. Ayuntamiento de Cd. Guzman, Jalisco.                                                                                                                  
  20. González Castolo, F. (2010). Una Feria originada de una Fiesta Patronal. H.          Ayuntamiento de Cd. Guzman, Jalisco.
  21. Goeldner, C. R. & Ritchie, J. R. B. (2009).  Tourism: Principles, practices, philosophies.  New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
  22. Hall, C.M. (1998). Introduction to tourism: Development, dimension and issues.  Sydney: Addison-Wesley & Longman.
  23. Hall, C.M. and Zeppel, H. (1990), “Cultural and Heritage tourism: The new grand tour?” Historic Environment, vol. 7 no. 3-4 pp. 86-98.
  24. Hanekom, S. X. & Thornhill, C. 1983. Public Administration in Contemporary Socie– A South African Perspective. Southern Book Publishers.       
  25. Ismail, Reedwaan, "Development of a normative model for cultural tourism on the Cape  Flats" (2008). CPUT Theses & Dissertations.
  26. Ivanovic, M. (2008). Cultural Tourism. Cape Town, South Africa.  Juta & Company Ltd.
  27. Jamieson, W. (1998) Cultural Heritage Tourism Planning and Development: Defining the Field and Its Challenges. APT Bulletin, Vol. 29, No. 3/4, Thirtieth-Anniversary Issue. (1998), pp. 65-67.
  28. Keyser, H. (2002). Tourism Development. Cape Town. University Press Publishers.
  29. Lara, J. (2010). La cocina jaliscience, tradición que permanece viva en la memoria y en los paladares.
  30. Lubbe B. (2003): Tourism Distribution: Managing the travel intermediary. Cape Town: Juta.
  31. Magi, L.M. & Nzama, A.T. (2008).  “Interplay of Nature and Heritage for Communities Around the Ukhahlamba-Drakensberg World Heritage ParkJournal of Tourism and Hospitality.  6 (2): 13-30.
  32. McDonald, G. (1999) Unpacking Cultural Tourism.  Vancouver: Simon Fraser University Press.
  33. MacDonald, R. and Lee, J. (2003) “Cultural rural tourism: Evidence from Canada”, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 30, Issue 2, April 2003, pages 307-322.                            
  34. McKercher, B. and Du Cros, H. (2003). “Testing a cultural tourism typology”, International Journal of Tourism Research, Vol. 5, Issue 1, 45-58, January-February.                
  35. McKercher, B. & Cros, H. 2002. Cultural Tourism: The Partnership Between Tourism and Cultural Heritage Management. New York: The Haworth Hospitality Press.

36.  Moulin, C. (1990) "Cultural Tourism Theory", Planning for Cultural Tourism, Walter Jamieson (ed.), Calgary: University of Calgary. (pp. 43-61).

37.  Moulin, C. (1989). "Cultural Tourism Theory". Paper presented at the Planning for Cultural Tourism Symposium, The University of Calgary, Calgary Alberta.

  1. Nzama, A.T; Magi, L.M. & Ngcobo, N.R. (2005). Workbook-I Tourism Workbook for Educators: 2004 Curriculum Statement. Unpublished Tourism Workshop Educational Materials.  Centre for Recreation & Tourism, UZ. and Tourism KwaZulu-Natal.

39.  Ornelas, Mendoza y Valdivia, N. A. (1962). Crónica de la Provincia de Santiago de Xalisco (1719-1722). IJAH. Guadalajara. 1962. Páginas 142, 143 y 144.

40.  Presidencia Municipal de Tonila. (2010). Plan de desarrollo Municipal del municipio de Tonila Jalisco 2004-200.

  1. Richards, G. (1996) “Production and consumption of European cultural tourism”. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol 23, Issue 2, pages 261-283.                                               

42.  Russo, A.P., and J. van der Borg (2002). Planning Considerations for Cultural Tourism: a Case Study of Four European Cities. Tourism Management, Vol. 23, n. 6, pp. 631-637.

43.  SARDC [Southern African Research & Documentation Centre], (1994). State of the Environment in Southern Africa. Johannesburg: The Penrose Press.

44.  Sharma, K. (2004). Tourism and Socio-Cultural Development.  New Delhi:  Sarup & Sons Publishers.                                                                          

45.  Shivers, J.S. (1981). Leisure and recreation concept: A critical analysis.  Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

46.  Spillane, B Brian A. /1997). “Zacoalco de Torres, Tierra de equipales”. México desconocido No. 240 / febrero 1997.

47.  Tighe, A.J. (1985). “Cultural tourism in the USA.”  Tourism Management, Vol. 6 (4): 234-251.

48.  Torkildsen, G. (2007).  Leisure and Recreation Management. London. E. & F.N. Spon

49.  Villaseñor, Bordes, R. (1989). “Yendo a ver dos hospitales”. Suplemento Cultural del Informador. 18 de Junio de 1989. Pp 13 and 14.

50.  WCED [World Commission on Environment Development], (1987). Our Common Future. Oxford: Oxford Publishers.

51.  Williams, M. A, Shaw, G. 1991. Tourism policies in a changing economicenvironment. In Tourism & economic development, Western European experiences. London: Belhaven Press.

52.  World Tourism Organization (WTO) (2000). Definitions concerning ToristsStatiscs. Madrid: WTO.

53.  WTO (World Tourism Organization) (1985). The state’s role in protecting and promoting culture as a factor of tourism development and the proper use and exploitation of the national culture of heritage of sites and monuments for tourism. Madrid: World Tourism Organization.

54.  Ximba, E. Z. (2009) Cultural and heritage tourism development and promotion in the Ndwedwe municipal area:  perceived policy and practice. Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Arts. Department of Recreation and Tourism at the the University of Zululand.