Source: E-mail dt. 21.12.2012
Need for Innovation and Creativity in the Professional Education – An Indian Perspective
Mr. Rajesh Rathore
Associate Professor and Research Scholar, Maharaja College of Management, Udaipur
Information technology has affected the changing structure of the higher education. It has also affected the role of the teacher. Introduction of the internet, the continuous improvement in technology, launching of the new laptops, tablets, smart classrooms and the mobile phones have made it easy to store and the exchange of the informations. Even with an Ipad the students can carry all the informations to the classrooms and exchange it with their classmates and teachers. Today teachers have to tell only the different sources of the information rather then providing them all the information and this has become possible only because of the new innovative creative technology in the education.
Education plays a vital role in development of national. Educations is one of the most important factors in achieving the development goals of the country It is an investment in the human resources as the quality and quantity of the students coming out the schools For India to get transformed into a developed nation in 2020 , Education is going to play very important role . Our education policy should ensure that India is transformed into a developed nation ……Good teachers could generate enlightened minds and instill confidence and will power in students to help them realize their dreams. It is important to ensure that teachers will provided with all facilities so that they can impart proper teaching to students. Education is the 3rd eye of man, the difference between mere works, learning and development of intelligence was known to ancients, as it clearly explained in this verse:-
So both knowledge and intelligence were expected of an educated person; and the process of getting knowledge does develop in intelligence.
Importance of Education
The importance of education can be interpreted from the reply to the question asked from Aristotle. The question asked was “How much better educated men were than those who were uneducated?”.The reply was “As much as the livings are than the dead.”
Education is one of the most important factors in achieving the developmental goals of the country. It is an investment in the human resources. If the fruits of education have to reach the common man, it must be adequately and properly administered.
In the present age of science and technology, it has been increasingly realized that one needs to be educated not only to become a better man and better social being. Education has come to be recognized as the main instrument of socio economic changes. That is why it has been rightly said that the destiny of a nation is shaped by quantity and quality of students coming out of schools and colleges. Education has been accepted as an instrument of development and for strengthening the values of democracy.
As India participated in the drafting of the Declaration and has ratified the covenant; Hence India is under obligation to implement such provisions.
The constitution makers recognizing the importance and significance of right to education made it a constitutional goal, and placed it under chapter IV Directive principle of stare policy of the Constitution of India.
Art.45 “requires state to make provisions within 10 years for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of 14 years that the state shall promote with specific care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people.”
It is significant to note that among several articles enshrined under part IV of the Indian Constitution,Art.45 had been given much importance as education is basic necessary of the democracy and if the people are denied their right to education them democracy will be paralyzed. By establishing obligations on the state by the constitution makers, made it responsibility of the coming governments to formulate a programme in order to achieve the given goals, but the unresponsive and crazy attitude of government to achieve the objective enshrined in Art.45 denied the hopes and aspirations of the people.
But the Indian Judiciary showed active interest in providing free and compulsory education to all children below the age of 14 years. In many of the cases judiciary had given landmark judgments.
In case of Mohini Jain Vs State of Karnataka AIR 1992 SC 1858, the supreme court held that “right to education is a fundamental right to education springs from the right to life. The right to life under Art.21 and the dignity of the individual cannot fully be appreciated without the enjoyment of right to education.”
In case of Unni Krishnan J.P Vs State of Andra Pradesh AIR SC, The Supreme Court was asked to examine the decision of Mohini Jain’s case. In the present case, the Apex court partly overruled given in Mohini Jain’s case. The court held that, the right to education is implicit in the right to life and personal liberty guaranteed by Art.21 and must be interpreted in light of the directive principle of state policy contained in Art.45, 46.
Further Supreme Court tin M.C.Mehta Vs State of Tamil Nadu, the Supreme Court observed that, to develop the full potential of the children they should be prohibited to do hazardous work, and education should be made available to them. In this regard the court held that, the government should formulate programme offering job oriented education so that their employment should not be affected.
Objectives of the paper
Innovative Higher Education presents fresh ideas in higher education in a straightforward and readable fashion. The paper focuses on descriptions and evaluations of current innovations and provocative new ideas with relevance for action beyond the immediate context in higher education. It also focuses on the effect of such innovations on teaching and students. It presents fresh ideas in higher education in a straightforward and readable fashion. It features descriptions and evaluations of current innovations and provocative new ideas with relevance for action beyond the immediate context in higher education.
So many innovative and the traditional techniques of the education have been analyzed and the evaluated. The effectiveness of the every method of the teaching is also identified. The traditional or innovative methods of teaching are critically examined, evaluated and some modifications in the delivery of knowledge is suggested. As such, the strengths and weaknesses of each teaching methodology are identified and Probable modifications that can be included in traditional methods are suggested
Traditional Teaching Method – An evaluation
In the tradition education method the teacher is assume as the sender or the source, the educational material is the information or message, and the student is the receiver of the information. In terms of the delivery medium, the educator can deliver the message via the “chalk-and- talk” method and overhead projector (OHP) transparencies. This directed instruction model has its foundations embedded in the behavioral learning perspective (Skinner, 1938) and it is a popular technique, which has been used for decades as an educational strategy in all institutions of learning.
Basically, the teacher controls the instructional process, the content is delivered to the entire class and the teacher tends to emphasize factual knowledge. In other words, the teacher delivers the lecture content and the students listen to the lecture. Thus, the learning mode tends to be passive and the learners play little part in their learning process (Orlich et al., 1998). It has been found in most universities by many teachers and students that the conventional lecture approach in classroom is of limited effectiveness in both teaching and learning. In such a lecture students assume a purely passive role and their concentration fades off after 15-20 minutes.
Some limitations which may prevail in traditional teaching method are as follows.
1. Traditional teaching in classroom using chalk and talk is “one way flow” of information.
2. Traditional Teachers often continuously talk for an hour without knowing students response and feedback.
3. Traditional the material presented is only based on lecturer notes and textbooks.
4. Traditional Teaching and learning are concentrated on “plug and play” method rather than practical aspects.
5. Traditional the handwriting of the lecturer decides the fate of the subject.
6. Traditional There is insufficient interaction with students in classroom.
7. Traditional More emphasis has been given on theory without any practical and real life time situations.
8. Traditional Learning from memorization but not understanding.
Innovative Methods of Education
1. E-Learning - A New trend In Education
E-Learning fosters independent learning. The use of E-Learning in educational activities in various fields has introduced new methods to enhance and transform teaching and learning. E-Learning provides individualized attention to the students. Internet and a vast array of digital resources and content are used for the purpose. E-Learning provides vast information required for independent learning to students which otherwise is not available in the traditional facilities of classroom.
E-Learning increased the quality of teaching, learning in the form of vast resources available to them. Independent learners can now learn differently according to the difference they possess.
In underdeveloped countries-learning can raise the level of education, literacy and economic development. This is especially true for countries where technical education is expensive, opportunities are limited, and economic disparities exist.
The biggest advantage of e-learning lies in its ability to cover distances. For an organization that is spread across multiple locations, traditional training becomes a constraint. All trainees need to come to a classroom to get trained.Additionally,the trainee’s learning pace is not addressed as all trainees are treated as having equal abilities and there is little flexibility in terms of timing and completion of the course
2. Multimedia Learning Process
Multimedia, is the combination of various digital media types such as text, Images, audio and video, into an integrated multi-sensory interactive application or Presentation to convey information to an audience. Traditional educational approaches have resulted in a mismatch between what is taught to the students and what the industry needs. As such, many institutions are moving towards problem based learning as a solution to producing graduates who are creative; think critically and analytically, to solve problems.
Currently, many institutions are moving towards problem-based learning as a solution to producing graduates who are creative and can think critically, analytically, and solve problems. Since knowledge is no longer an end but a means to creating better problem solvers and encourage lifelong learning. Problem-based learning is becoming increasingly popular in educational institutions as a tool to address the Inadequacies of traditional teaching. Since these traditional approaches do not encourage students to question what they have learnt or to associate with previously acquired knowledge (Teo &Wong, 2000), problem-based learning is seen as an innovative measure to encourage students to learn how to learn via real-life problems (Boud & Feletti, 1999).
The teacher uses multimedia to modify the contents of the material. It helps the teacher to represent in a more meaningful way, using different media elements. These media elements can be converted into digital form, modified and customized for the final presentation. By incorporating digital media elements into the project, the students are able to learn better since they use multiple sensory modalities, which would make them more motivated to pay more attention to the Information presented and retains the information better.
Creating multimedia projects is both challenging and exciting. Fortunately, there are many multimedia technologies that are available for developers to create these innovative and interactive multimedia applications (Vaughan, 1998). These technologies include Adobe Photoshop and Premier to create edit graphics and video files respectively, Sound Forge and 3D Studio Max to create and/or edit sound and animation files, respectively. They can also use an authoring tool such as Macromedia Director or Author ware to integrate and synchronies all these media elements into one final application, add interactive features, and package the application into a distributable format for the end-user. Another advantage of creating multimedia projects in the classroom setting is that when students create multimedia projects, they tend to do this in a group environment. By working in a group, the students would have to learn to work cooperatively and collaboratively, using their group skills and a variety of activities to accomplish the project’s overall objectives.
Book Based Innovative Methods
The researchers suggest some of the methods can very well be applied by the Modern teachers. As the researchers feel that basically the core objective of teaching should never be deviated by the use of an innovative method. The following methods which are suggested are an extension to the traditional methods of teaching.
(1) Mind Map
Mind maps were developed in the late 60s by Tony Buzan as a way of helping students make notes that used only key words and images, but mind map can be used by teachers to explain concepts in an innovative way. They are much quicker to make and much easier to remember and review because of their visual quality. The nonlinear nature of mind maps makes it easy to link and cross-reference different elements of the map.
Mind Maps are also very quick to review, as it is easy to refresh information in your mind just by glancing once. Mind Maps can also be effective mnemonics and remembering their shape and structure can provide the cues necessary to remember the information within it. They engage much more of the brain in the process of assimilating and connecting facts than conventional notes. The key notion behind mind mapping is that we learn and remember more effectively by using the full range of visual and sensory tools at our disposal. Pictures, music, color, even touch and smell play a part in our learning armory will help to recollect information for long time. The key is to build up mind maps that make the most of these things building on our own creativity, thinking and cross linking between ideas that exist in our own minds. As the recent research point that any particular information explained with the help of graph charts make a high impact in the minds of the people and keeping this as the core aspect the teachers may try to picturize the concepts and show the same to the students
(2) Teaching with sense of humour – “humour an effective medium of teaching”
Everyone loves a teacher with an infectious sense of humor. Looking at the lighter side of life not only fosters cordial relations between professors and students, but also provides welcome relief while trying to follow a difficult lecture on a complicated subject. When there is a willingness to change, there is hope for progress in any field. Teaching is a challenge. Learning is a challenge. Combining both effectively is a challenge. Being humorous is a challenge. However, laughing is easy.
We are convinced both by experience and research that using humour in teaching is a very effective tool for both the teacher and student. Humor strengthens the relationship between student and teacher, reduces stress, makes a course more interesting and if relevant to the subject, may even enhance recall of the material. Humor has the ability to relax people reduce tension, and thereby create an atmosphere conducive for learning and communication. Numerous studies in the field of advertising have noted that humor is the most effective tool for enhancing recall of advertisements. It is easy to create a humor in the classroom by reading books of jokes and to listen to professional comics. The students should be encouraged to take notes, especially to learn about the professionals’ use of such techniques as exaggeration, pauses and timing. Observe reality and exaggerate it - much humor lies in observations about real life and truthful situations. In conclusion, humor not only plays an important role in the healing process but is also very important in education.
(3) Z to A Approach
This approach attempts to explain the application part of a particular concept first. The teacher should explain the application of a particular concept first and explain the effects of such applications. For example in management subject - motivation is explained in a manner that the organization get extensive benefits out of using some techniques like promotions and awards. So here the use of promotion is explained first and later students would get interest in knowing what are promotions and awards. The teacher starts explaining what is promotion and explains what motivation theory in management is Another example we can try is that in accounting the Income statement and Balance Sheet can be explained first and later drawing their attention to double entry system of book keeping. It makes particular concept clear students and develops interest to know exactly the concept. Creates long lasting memory/correlation of a concept.
This method also suffers from some problems. It takes quite long time for a teacher to introduce a particular concept and Initial difficulty in understanding a particular concept will be encountered.
(3) Mnemonics Words - Words – Words Approach
Here the teacher is not supposed to talk on a particular concept for a quite long time. But to make it clear to the students he can just go on saying mnemonics or its associated meaning in words. Here he goes on saying only words instead of sentence, and once they come to a basic understanding of the meaning of a particular concept then the teacher will explain in sentences. For example in teaching language courses this technique can be used as an effective medium by the teacher to develop word power. Dictionary must be used widely Word power increases Teacher also gets to know many words pertaining to a particular concept.
(4) Role Playing and Scenario Analysis Based Teaching
Role playing and scenario analysis is mostly used in organizations that try to analyze a problem pertaining to the organization, and this is also used in management Institutions. But the similar kind of practice can be tried in other specialization too like science and engineering. Science and engineering courses have practical but in support of those practical if students are given a scenario and other options to solve a Particular issue, then the students are exposed to decision making in a given environment.
For example, in teaching accounting the role of accountant can be explained by role playing technique. Invoice and bills can be given to students and asked them to assume the role of accountant. Here the real entries pertaining to transactions are made by the student and this is more practical approach to teaching where theory is supplemented by proper practical knowledge. Similar kind of technique can be applied in management, engineering and science courses.
Information Technology has changed the present education system and way of the imparting the education. So many innovative and creative tools are being used for storing and facilitating the informations which includes computers, mobiles, blogs, twitter, facebook, video conferencing, tablets, smart classrooms, Journals.
Across the world, information technology is dramatically altering the way students; faculty and staff learn and work. Internet-ready phones, handheld computers, digital cameras, and MP3 players are revolutionizing the college life. As the demand for technology continues to rise, colleges and universities are moving all sorts of student services, from laundry monitoring to snack delivery online. At Columbia University, a real-time Web-based service called Laundry View lets students log on to a Web- based system to see which washing machines are free before they head to the laundry room. They can monitor their wash and can even program the service to e-mail them when their load is done.
Technology is also changing the classroom experience. The classrooms at New York University’s Leonard N Stern School of Business feature all sorts of conveniences for students and teachers. For instance, the room is wired with cameras for photographing whiteboards, so students can receive the images as digital files. In addition, tablet PCs, compact computers that allow you to write notes directly onto the screen with a special pen, replace the archaic projector. With the tablet technology allow professors to make notes on charts and spreadsheets and send them directly to their students' PCs and he will get a feed back from each student. From the above, we can make out that the Information and communication technology has made many innovations in the field of teaching and also made a drastic change from the old paradigm of teaching and learning. In the new paradigm of learning, the role of student is more important than teachers. The concepts of Paperless and penless classroom are emerging as an alternative to the old teaching learning method. Nowadays there is democratization of knowledge a role of the teacher is changing to that of facilitator. We need to have interactive teaching and this changing role education is inevitable with the introduction of multimedia technology and the spawning of technologically-savvy generation of youths. The analysis reveals some of the suggestions that the teaching community can practice in the classrooms. Ultimately the teaching people are satisfied when he could reach the students community with his ideas and views. So, teaching depends upon successful mode of communication and Innovation though we mean the changes that we propose to be included in our medium of communication or even inclusion of some other elements in communicating information.
Some recently conducted that that recommends that the teaching would be highly effective if the Teacher start to use the recent multimedia technologies like usage of computers extensively or some modifications in the conventional mode of teaching. The use of computers may be very well practiced in the environment where the use of such technology is highly possible, but there must be some sort of innovation which can also be practiced in an environment where such use of technology is on its way to growth. In those environments use of humor, role playing, words –words approach, Z-A approach are the ideas that can very well be practiced. The researchers believe that the core objective of teaching is passing on the information or knowledge to the minds of the students. Any method using computers or modifying the existing conventional chalk-talk method are innovative if they ultimately serve the attainment of core objective of teaching.
VII. Research limitations
As the weaknesses that are explained in this research work are purely the views and perceptions of the researchers and which could not be generalized. Even the modifications suggested might suffer from other limitations. The researchers try to suggest some useful modifications which could be tried by teachers as innovative to get maximum results.
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