Source: E-mail dt.19.11.2012





Assistant Professor, Department of management Studies,

 Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan College of Arts & Science for Women, Perambalur,

Tamilnadu, India




                  “Winning isn’t everything, but wanting to win is.........Motivation is the answer to the question “Why we do what we do?”.M motivates P” Motivator motivates the Person. It is one of most important duty of an entrepreneur to motivate people. We strongly believe that motivating people with visionary and shared goals is more favorable than motivating through tactics, incentives or manipulation through simple carrot and stick approaches because motivating with vision is natural whereas the former is artificial and ephemeral. Self-motivation comes from meeting life’s challenges vigorously. Don’t numb to your trials and difficulties, nor build mental walls to exclude pain from your life. You will find peace  not in denial, but in victory. “the motivation is power Emergency department (ED) visits present an opportunity to deliver brief interventions (BIs) to reduce violence and alcohol misuse among urban adolescents at risk for future injury. Encourage Candidates to Discuss Specific Experiences and Accomplishments, Determine Which Questions to Ask Candidates Use Follow-up Tools with Candidates, Improve the Quality of the Workforce Through More Effective Interviewing, Use an Interviewing Framework to Master the Interviewing Process, Develop a System of Behavioral Questions that Gathers Useful Information. This motivation is interesting because investigations the influence of factors, such as social loafing, is vital to understanding differing levels of individual contribution, team dynamics, and group performance as a collective pursues its goals.




Motivation, interview, group, goals, skills





Motivation is tremendously complex, and what has been unraveled with any degree assurance is small indeed. But the dismal ratio of knowledge to speculation has not depended the enthusiasm for new forms of snake oil that are constantly coming on the market, many of them with academic testimonials.


            Motivational interviewing is a semi-directive, client-centered counseling style for eliciting behavior change by helping clients to explore and resolve ambivalence. Compared with non-directive counseling, it's more focused and goal-directed. Motivational Interviewing is a method that works on facilitating and engaging intrinsic motivation within the client in order to change behavior.


            Motivational interviewing is considered to be both client-centered and semi-directive. It departs from traditional Rogerian client-centered therapy through this use of direction, in which therapists attempt to influence clients to consider making changes, rather than non-directively explore themselves.




            The term ‘motivativation’ originally is organized from the Latin word ‘movere’ which means ‘to move’. It is derived from the word ‘motive’. A motive is an inner state that energies, activates and directs behaviour toward goals. Motive is always internal to use and is externalized via behavior. Thus the motivation is one’s willingness to exert efforts towards the accomplishment of his/her goals.


Ten stages and processes


  1. Consciousness-Raising
  2. Dramatic Relief
  3. Self-Reevaluation
  4. Environmental Reevaluation
  5. Social Liberation
  6. Self-Liberation
  7. Helping Relationships
  8. Counter-Conditioning
  9. Reinforcement Management
  10. Stimulus Control






1.      Be well prepared.

2.      Develop a positive attitude towards life.

3.      Always maintain this positive attitude throughout life, come what may.

4.      Develop good habits from the earliest.

5.      Make speaking truthfully and frankly a way of life.


The spirit of motivational interviewing


We believe it is vital to distinguish between the spirit of motivational interviewing and techniques that we have recommended to manifest that spirit. Clinicians and trainers who become too focused on matters of technique can lose sight of the spirit and style that are central to the approach. There are as many variations in technique there are clinical encounters.  The spirit of the method, however, is move enduring and can be characterized in a few key points.


  1. Motivation to change is elicited from the client, and not imposed from without. Other motivational approaches have emphasized coercion, persuasion, constructive confrontation, and the use of external contingencies (e.g., the threatened loss of job or family). Such strategies may have their place in evoking change, but they are quite different in spirit from motivational interviewing which relies upon identifying and mobilizing the client's intrinsic values and goals to stimulate behaviour change.
  2. It is the client's task, not the counselor’s, to articulate and resolve his or her ambivalence. Ambivalence takes the form of a conflict between two courses of action (e.g., indulgence versus restraint), each of which has perceived benefits and costs associated with it.  Many clients have never had the opportunity of expressing the often confusing, contradictory and uniquely personal elements of this conflict, for example, "If I stop smoking I will feel better about myself, but I may also put on weight, which will make me feel unhappy and unattractive."  The counselor’s task is to facilitate expression of both sides of the ambivalence impasse, and guide the client toward an acceptable resolution that triggers change.
  3. Direct persuasion is not an effective method for resolving ambivalence. It is tempting to try to be "helpful" by persuading the client of the urgency of the problem about the benefits of change. It is fairly clear, however, that these tactics generally increase client resistance and diminish the probability of change.
  4. The counseling style is generally a quiet and eliciting one. Direct persuasion, aggressive confrontation, and argumentation are the conceptual opposite of motivational interviewing and are explicitly proscribed in this approach. To a counselor accustomed to confronting and giving advice, motivational interviewing can appear to be a hopelessly slow and passive process. The proof is in the outcome. More aggressive strategies, sometimes guided by a desire to "confront client denial," easily slip into pushing clients to make changes for which they are not ready.
  5. The counselor is directive in helping the client to examine and resolve ambivalence. Motivational interviewing involves no training of clients in behavioural coping skills, although the two approaches not incompatible. The operational assumption in motivational interviewing is that ambivalence or lack of resolve is the principal obstacle to be overcome in triggering change. Once that has been accomplished, there may or may not be a need for further intervention such as skill training. The specific strategies of motivational interviewing are designed to elicit, clarify, and resolve ambivalence in a client-centered and respectful counseling atmosphere.
  6. Readiness to change is not a client trait, but a fluctuating product of interpersonal interaction. The therapist is therefore highly attentive and responsive to the client's motivational signs. Resistance and "denial" are seen not as client traits, but as feedback regarding therapist behaviour. Client resistance is often a signal that the counselor is assuming greater readiness to change than is the case, and it is a cue that the therapist needs to modify motivational strategies.
  7. The therapeutic relationship is more like a partnership or companionship than expert/recipient roles. The therapist respects the client's autonomy and freedom of choice (and consequences) regarding his or her own behaviour.


Motivational Interviewing Principles, Strategies, and Skills


Motivational interviewing is a directive, client-centered counseling style for eliciting behaviour change by helping clients to explore and resolve ambivalence. It is most centrally defined not by technique but by its spirit as a facilitative style for interpersonal relationship.


How the “spirit” of motivational interviewing is used to encourage behavior change such as increased physical activity?


1. Staff help participants identify their own values and goals to evoke motivation to change.

2. It is the participant’s responsibility to articulate the costs and benefits of taking on new activities or changing behaviors. The staff task is to facilitate discussion of both sides of the dilemma and guide participant toward a resolution of the ambivalence, hopefully in a positive direction.

3. Direct persuasion, advice giving, argumentation, and aggressive confrontation are avoided as

Methods to encourage change. While there is a place for advice-giving when a participant asks

For suggestions, motivational interviewing is based on an eliciting style.

4. Staff must be very attentive and responsive to participant’s motivational signals in order to

Support but not push for change. If a participant makes comments that imply resistance, that

May be a sign that a staff member has assumed greater participant readiness to make a change

Than is the reality.

5. The relationship between staff and participant is a partnership, with the staff respecting each

participant’s freedom to make choices, regardless of the consequences. The only caveat occurs

When a participant reports excessive physical activity that could be unsafe due to medical and

Physical circumstances, such as pre-existing cardiac conditions. In such an instance, the

participant is strongly advised to make changes to ensure safety. Behaviors that are characteristic of the motivational interview style can be learned and skills will develop with practice.




1. Reflective listening to understand what a participant is trying to communicate.

2. Expressing support and acceptance.

3. Eliciting and selectively reinforcing any mention of positive change from the participant.

4. Checking on the participant’s readiness to make changes, making sure not to get ahead of the

    Participant or make assumptions about readiness, willingness, and ability to make changes.

5. Encouraging self-determination and problem-solving.


There are four general principles behind Motivational Interviewing:


Express Empathy


Empathy involves seeing the world through the client's eyes, thinking about things as the client thinks about them, feeling things as the client feels them, sharing in the client's experiences. Expression of empathy is critical to the MI approach. When clients feel that they are understood, they are more able to open up to their own experiences and share those experiences with others. Having clients share their experiences with you in depth allows you to assess when and where they need support, and what potential pitfalls may need focused on in the change planning process. Importantly, when clients perceive empathy on a counselor's part, they become more open to gentle challenges by the counselor about lifestyle issues and beliefs about substance use. Clients become more Comfortable fully examining their ambivalence about change and less likely to defend ideas like their denial of problems, reducing use vs. abstaining, etc. In short, the counselor's accurate understanding of the client's experience facilitates change.



Support Self-Efficacy:


As noted above, a client's belief that change is possible is an important motivator to succeeding in making a change. As clients are held responsible for choosing and carrying out actions to change in the MI approach, counselors focus their efforts on helping the clients stay motivated, and supporting clients' sense of self-efficacy is a great way to do that. One source of hope for clients using the MI approach is that there is no "right way" to change, and if a given plan for change does not work, clients are only limited by their own creativity as to the number of other plans that might be tried.


The client can be helped to develop a belief that he or she can make a change. For example, the clinician might inquire about other healthy changes the client has made in their life, highlighting skills the client already has. Sharing brief clinical examples of other, similar clients' successes at changing the same habit or problem can sometimes be helpful. In a group setting, the power of having other people who have changed a variety of behaviors during their lifetime gives the clinician enormous assistance in showing that people can change.



Roll with Resistance


In MI, the counselor does not fight client resistance, but "rolls with it." Statements demonstrating resistance are not challenged. Instead the counselor uses the client's "momentum" to further explore the client's views. Using this approach, resistance tends to be decreased rather than increased, as clients are not reinforced for becoming argumentative and playing "devil's advocate" to the counselor's suggestions. MI encourages clients to develop their own solutions to the problems that they themselves have defined. Thus, there is no real hierarchy in the client-counselor relationship for the client to fight against. In exploring client concerns, counselors may invite clients to examine new perspectives, but counselors do not impose new ways of thinking on clients.



Develop Discrepancy


"Motivation for change occurs when people perceive a discrepancy between where they are and where they want to be".MI counselors work to develop this situation through helping clients examine the discrepancies between their current behavior and future goals. When clients perceive that their current behaviors are not leading toward some important future goal, they become more motivated to make important life changes. Of course, MI counselors do not develop discrepancy at the expense of the other MI principles, but gently and gradually help clients to see how some of their current ways of being may lead them away from, rather than toward, their eventual goals.




Training Motivational Interviewing Skills and Techniques


Motivational Interviewing is an empathic, gentle, and skillful style of counseling that helps practitioners have productive conversations with individuals with co-occurring and other disorders.


Essential characteristics of motivational interviewing include:



The processes of change in behaviour strategies





                                   A good start is half work finished, a word or deed of motivation is maximum work finished. Every company today needs a competent person. Thus the level of interviews has been in a dynamic manner. Now a day’s companies are very intelligent enough to motivate candidates and bring out the best in them and then go for the process of selection. This approach brings out the talents of the candidates and helps them to seek a right career.