Source: E-mail dt. 7 June 2012


Mitigation Strategies for Safety Management


Dr. R. Karuppasamy M.Com., MBA, M.Phil., Ph.D., PLME

 Director, Management Studies, SNS College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India




Mr. C. Arul Venkadesh MBA, PGDPM (IRLL), (PhD)

Assistant Professor – Department of Management Sciences, CIET College, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India






“The Desire is to provide a safe, productive work environment, while reducing the liability and the hidden bottom-line losses of downtime is driving the facility managers and the owners to establish a comprehensive safety and health management process ad programmes”


~ Joseph F. Gustin


The importance of Safety was very much realized in the beginning of twentieth century because every year millions of accidents occur which results in either death or in temporary and permanent disablement that involves a BEST amount of cost such as resulting from wasted time and growth rate etc. Negligence of safety in any stage in a place can result into disaster leading to loss of life and property and decrease of production while environment of industrial safety cerates fearless work environment and helps to achieve reduced level of occupational stress. Employees moral confidences and efficiency in operation is increased which improves quality of work as well as quality of work-life of employees. This leads to increase rate of production, to reduce cost of production and to prevent premature death of trained workers, who are the backbone of any industry. Safety needs to be managed by evolving appropriate safety systems and methods. Hence, safety is the responsibility of all managerial Personnel, supervisory staff and workers in an industry. Dependence of people upon industries is increasing day by day. For example we can presume the importance of a photo state machine in a Student’s Life, we cannot imagine a modern kitchen without cooking gas and gas stove, we cannot imagine traveling of travelers with cars, buses, trains and aero planes etc. All these have become possible due to continue development and growth of the various industries, and trained workers who are working in these industries. As the required number of various industries in India and all over the world is increasing day by day the required number of safety personnel and trained workers are also increasing day by day. Obviously there are excellent job possibilities in this profession.  The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse Occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for Fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.


Best Management Practices


Best safety Management Practice (GMP) boils down to doing the right things, the right way. Best safety  Management Practices are part of BEST safety  management with the objective to reach identified goals. Since we are talking about safety, directed at reducing unwanted events that we call accidents or incidents.  Reducing accidents means management activities that:  prevent the unwanted events from happening,  allow early detection of deviations form accepted standards, planned actions to cope with the results shoud the unwanted event nevertheless occur, and learn form those events to imporve preventative actions.


Basically this is simple: if you want to go somewhere, you need to do something. Or rather: you need to carry out well-defined activities in a well-defined manner by well-trained people. Results can only be obtained if you:



Use of SMS (safety management system) can be generally interpreted as applying a quality management approach to control safety risks. Similar to other management functions, safety management requires planning, organising, communicating and providing direction.


The SMS development begins with setting the organisational safety policy. It defines the generic principles upon which the SMS (safety management system)  is build and operated. This first step outlines the strategy for achieving acceptable level of safety within the organisation.


Safety planning and implementation of safety management procedures are the next key steps in the processes designed to mitigate and contain risk in operations. Once these controls are ready, quality management techniques can be utilised to ensure that they achieve the intended objectives and, where they fail, to improve them. This is accomplished by deployment of safety assurance and evaluation processes which in turn provide for a continuous monitoring of operations and for identifying areas of safety improvement.


Put simply, effective safety management systems are using risk and quality management methods to achieve the safety goals. In addition, SMS (safety Management System)  Also Provides The organisational framework to establish and foster the development of a positive corporate safety culture. The implementation of an SMS (safety management system)  gives the organisation’s management a structured set of tools to meet their responsibilities for safety defined by the regulator.


Roles Responsibilities Accountabilities and Authorities (R2A2's)


Where an employee,


·         Is the only comprehensive document that achieves the following;

·         A clear communication of management expectations through the assignment of one or more roles for each employee, and the responsibilities, accountabilities, and authorities associated with each role;

·         Employee understanding and acceptance of what is expected of them.

·         Employee R2A2 are intended to be used to

·         Establish, communicate, and document management expectations and employee understanding and acceptance;

·         Form a basis for establishing employee goals;

·         Form a basis for employee performance appraisals; Communicate and document changes in employee responsibilities during the course of a performance year; Identify training needs,

·         Help to determine employee job classifications; Inform job candidates about prospective positions; Assess employee workload so that managers can make staffing decisions.


Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Software


The Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Software is a tool used by managers at Sandia to assist in their implementation of ISM. The tool currently has two major modules: Primary Hazard Screening (PHS) module and the Hazards Analysis (HA) module. The primary focus of the PHS is to document the identification and control of hazards, identify required training, establish the type of Facility:, and determine a hazard classification of an operation. If the hazard classification of the operation is higher than ‘standard industrial hazards’ then a hazards analysis using the HA module is required. The HA is a modified Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) performed for each low hazard identified by the PHS. ISMS Software replaces the previous fractional methods of hazard data collection, and is a solution to the general unavailability of hazard-related data to ES&H professionals, other corporate entities, and DOE. ISMS Software is accessed through Sandia’s internal web.





Work Management Reporting System


Electronic Work Management Program Reporting Tool (PRT) deployed through a computer desktop reporting tool, available to all Work Management users on Site. The tool provides a broad spectrum of Work Management information to the user based on user profiles which narrows the information to the appropriate Facility. The tool also provides access to the electronic Work Management System, a set of auto-generated weekly and monthly performance indicators for each Facility on Site, etc.


The PRT tool standardizes and automates reporting and metrics and provides "real time" Work Management information to the end user.


Provides the broad spectrum of Work Management reporting to the end users desktop computer.  Identification and standardization of work processes and customer needs was a significant challenge. Also, since SRS does not have programs which are integrated, information sources & flows needed to be analyzed and determined. PRT serves as the reporting integration tool for the wide variety of Programs which make up the Work Management Process.


Success is measured through customer use of the tool.  The program makes available the entire spectrum of Work Management reporting to the ~6,000 Work Management end users on Site. Continued development and reporting needs of the users is identified through a "PRT Feedback" process which is included with the tool, where users can individually submit any request or issue they may have & whatever is submitted, is scheduled and tracked to closure, at which time the user receives electronic feedback. PRT Feedback, scheduled work off of items and responses to feedback is electronically available to all users.


E - Worker Feedback


Electronic Worker Feedback with Work Planner electronic closure response mechanism is a feature of the Electronic Work Management Program Reporting Tool (PRT). If worker feedback is not responded to by Work Planner, a "flag" e-mail reminder of the action is auto-generated to the Work Planner each Friday.


Provided an electronic method within the Work Management System to provide, track, close, monitor & report worker feedback. Reporting is accomplished through the Site Program Reporting Tool (PRT). A screen print of the PRT desktop tool is below, showing the Worker Feedback reporting button:


Worker feedback is now entered by the worker at the same time they enter their work hours and history. Work Planners are notified electronically of any feedback and return comment to the mechanic via e-mail. Worker Feedback, continuous improvement is a primary element of the ISMS process. Success was measured by the workers using the tool & work planners responding and closing the loop. Reporting of the process allows anyone within a Facility: to view feedback and responses.


Safety Culture Framework


From the review of the main existing and emerging Safety Culture frameworks in aviation and beyond, we know that Safety Culture is a multi-dimensional construct. To capture the common and key-elements of the various leading frameworks, six dimensions are needed.


These Dimensions are called Characteristics. The six Characteristics are:



- Commitment reflects the extent to which every level of the organization has a positive attitude towards safety and recognizes its importance. Top management should be genuinely committed to keeping a high level of safety and give employees motivation and means to do so as well.


- Behavior reflects the extent to which every level of the organization behaves such as to maintain and improve the level of safety. From the management side, the importance of safety should be recognized and everything needed to maintain and enhance safety records should be put in place.


- Awareness reflects the extent to which employees and management are aware of the risks for themselves and for others implied by the organization’s operations. Employees and management should be constantly maintaining a high degree of vigilance with respect to safety issues.


- Adaptability reflects the extent to which employees and management are willing to learn from past experiences and are able to take whatever action is necessary in order to enhance the level of safety within the organization.


- Information reflects the extent to which information is distributed to the right people in the organization. Employees should be encouraged to report safety concerns. Work related information has to be communicated in the right way to the right people in order to avoid miscommunication that could lead to hazardous situations.


- Justness reflects the extent to which safe behavior and reporting of safety issues are encouraged or even rewarded and unsafe behavior is discouraged


Recommendations and Conclusion


           Safety planning and implementation of safety management procedures are the next key steps in the processes designed to mitigate and contain risk in operations. Once these controls are ready, quality management techniques can be utilized to ensure that they achieve the intended objectives As with any corporate process the user must be convinced of the ‘value-added’ to their operation. However, after the usefulness of the process had been established, many other requirements such as identification of quality assessment requirements, programmatic requirements, roll up of hazards, integration with other processes have been requested. Careful corporate management of the process is required to ensure only ‘value-added’ changes from the user’s perspective are implemented. Additionally, it was necessary to integrate specific ES&H working groups (i.e. Electrical Safety Committee, IH Working Group, etc.) into the development of the question set to ensure consistency and accuracy.




  1. http://www.faa.gov/about/initiatives/saso/library/media/SMS_Brochure.pdf
  2. http://www.efcog.org/bp/p/3.htm
  3. http://www.easa.europa.eu/essi/ECAST_SMS.htm#WP2
  4. http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/showdoc/cr/SOR-2001-37//20090805/en?page=1
  5. http://www.faa.gov/about/initiatives/saso/library/media/SASO_Briefing_Managers_Toolkit.pdf SASO Outreach, Spring 2009
  6. http://www.skybrary.aero/index.php/Beyond_Safety_Management_Systems
  7. Center for Chemical Process Safety (1992). Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures, with Worked Examples (2nd Edition ed.). Wiley-AIChE. ISBN 0-8169-0491-X.
  8. Evans, Andy and John Parker. May 2008. Beyond Safety Management Systems. Pp. 12-17 in Aero Safety World.