Source: E-mail dt. 22.2.2012
Cultural and Heritage Tourism in Regional Development of
G. Vargas-Hernández, M.B.A; Ph.D.
Department of Administration. Centro Universitario de Ciencias Económico Administrativas Universidad de Guadalajara. Periférico Norte 799 Edificio G-201-7. Zapopan,
Jalisco C.P. 45100; México.
This study aims to propose a normative
model to determine the potential of cultural tourism in the municipalities that
comprise the region 6 of the State of
Keywords: Regional development, tourism companies,
JEL: D20, L200, L230, 0100, 0120, 0130, Q010, Q500, Q560, Q570, R300, Z100
There is an increasing awareness of
culture, arts, festivals, heritage sites natural and cultural, and folklore. Cultural diversity is the base of cultural and heritage tourism. Cultural tourism has been at the center of the tourism industry in
Despite that the Southern Region of the
Cultural tourism is neither common nor universal. Cultural tourism may not be considered as part of the core interests of an organization, government or community, but they appreciate and understand the consequences and possibilities of tourism (Jamieson, 1998). There is also scarce data and information on practice of cultural tourism activities. Social dynamic changes occurring in the Southern Region of Jalisco, make difficult to obtain useful information to be a reliable input for the design, implementation and effectiveness of cultural tourism policies.
The objective of this study is to address the lack of cultural tourism activities and infrastructure on the Southern Region of Jalisco. An aim of this exploratory study is to collect inputs on whether the Southern Region of Jalisco can be transformed into a cultural tourism destination. The concept of cultural tourism can be formulated after understanding the cultural activities offered by a community and considered as an asset to the regional economic development. Cultural tourism is an option to create employment, to improve the quality of life and poverty eradication initiatives.
As a marketing strategy, cultural tourism is one of the latest buzzwords to attract visitors to cultural sites. Cultural tourism destinations offering cultural products and services linked by geography, townships, folklore, history, celebrations, art experiences and performance, can be marketed to local and foreign visitors. Cultural tourism in the Southern Region of Jalisco can offer potential benefits to regional economic development and to visitors as well, because it has the resources. An integrated approach involving all stakeholders must be inclusive and participative to ensure sustainable, holistic and efficient cultural tourism ventures.
The term of cultural tourism is heavily influenced by professional approaches to be referred more as a concept than as a particular set of objects, articles or products. The World Tourism Organization (WTO) defines tourism as comprising the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes (WTO, 2000:4). Cultural tourism is defined as the movements of persons for essentially cultural motivations, which includes study tours, performing arts, cultural tours, travel to festivals, visits to historic sites and monuments, folklore a pilgrimages (WTO, 1985).
The concept of cultural tourism encompasses a wide range of views embracing a full range of human expressions and manifestations that visitors undertake to experience the heritages, arts, lifestyles, etc. from people living in cultural destinations. Heritage tourism is usually considered to be cultural tourism. Heritage tourism: refers to tourists visiting places of traditional, historical and cultural significance with the aim of learning, paying respect to recreational purposes (Nzama, et al., 2005).
The term cultural tourism encompasses historical sites, arts and craft fairs and festivals, museums of all kinds, the performing arts and the visual arts and other heritage sites which tourists enjoy to visit in pursuit of cultural experiences (Tighe, 1985). Heritage tourism as a synonymous of cultural tourism, is an experiential tourism related to visiting preferred landscape, historic sites, buildings or monuments and seeking an encounter, involvement and stimulation with nature or feeling part of the history of a place (Hall & Zeppel, 1990).
A cultural tourist is a person who stays more than 40 kilometers away from home for at least one night and has attended a cultural venue, which will include visiting an art gallery, museum, library, music concert, opera and a cinema (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1997). Hall (1998) defines cultural tourism as tourism that focuses on the culture of a destination, the lifestyle, heritage, arts industries and leisure pursuits of the local population.
Cultural tourism is related to the cultural aspects that includes the customs and traditions of people, their heritage, history and way of life. The International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) defines cultural tourism as “a name that means many things to many people and herein lies its strength and its weakness” (McKercher and Cros, 2002:24). Cultural tourism theory is only beginning to debate issues of gender specialization (Aitchson, 2003).
Cultural tourism refers to travel that is directed towards providing opportunities and access to visitors to experiencing the arts and crafts, museums, heritage, festivals, music, dance, theaters, literature, historic sites and buildings, landscapes, neighborhoods and special character of local communities. Cultural tourism relates to the temporary short-term movement of people to cultural destinations outside the place of residence and work, and where their activities at these destinations or facilities cater for their recreation needs (Keyser, 2002). Cultural tourism associates the word "tourist and cultural attraction" with the tangible and intangible cultural heritage. Cultural tourism is the attendance by inbound visitors to one or more cultural attractions such as festivals, fairs, museums, art galleries, history buildings and craft workshops (Bureau of Tourism Research, 2004).
Ivanovic (2008) and Cooper, Fletcher, Fyall, Gilbert & Shepherd (2008) sustain that the greatest motivator for travel is to understand culture and heritage, both emerging as contributing to economic development. Ivanovic (2008) argues that cultural and heritage tourism is a recent development in the tourism activities, and with ecotourism are emerging as the predominant forms of tourism and replacing sun-lust mass tourism. Cultural attractions and events play a key role in cultural tourism and hospitality destinations to entice visitors (George, 2001). Cultural tourism is traveling to experience and to participate in vanishing lifestyles that lie within human memory (Goeldner & Ritchie, 2009).
The aim of cultural tourism policy is to influence and attract visitors (Williams and Shaw, 1991:263). Tourists with special interest in culture corresponds to the segment of "cultural tourism", ie., size and value are directly attributable to the country's cultural values that encourage tourists to take a trip. Tourists with occasional interest in culture belong to other tourism segments (CESTUR). A special program of incentives for tourism related to culture or values must recognize contributions that tourism can have for culture and vice versa, to capitalize on the positive and generate synergies for the development of both sectors.
Within the designing and developing process, cultural tourism may take many forms. Sharma (2004) adds to the cultural resources debate advocating the economic benefits of developing programs, resources and facilities for the benefit of local communities, creating a balance between the economic imperatives and positive and negative impacts.
Cultural tourism activities may have an economic impact on regional development by creating employment and improving the standards of life. Hanekom, & Thornhill (1983:110) describe the activities of cultural tourism as consisting of phenomena such as formulation of policy making, planning and organizing the structure, methods and procedures, recruiting, training, developing and motivating personnel, budgeting and financing operations. The philosophical principles of the tourism discipline must be reconsidered to re-evaluate the fundamentals of cultural tourism.
Cultural and heritage tourism can be considered as a dynamic activity developed through physical experiences, searching and celebrating what is unique and beautiful, represented by our own values and attributes which are worthy to preserve and to inherit to descendents in such a way that communities can be proud of them.
2. Theoretical background and literature review
Theory building and development is needed in
order to use it as a foundation for an explanation and understanding of the
normative model on cultural tourism for the Region of
Easton (1979) developed a normative model of cultural tourism emphasizing the external environments serving the inputs that may influence the goal-achievement, such as the political, economic, socio-cultural, legal, environmental, educational, health, statutory policies, demographics and technological environment, although the numbers and types of possible environments may be unlimited (Ferreira, 1996:403). Each environment requires the adaptation of the conversion mechanism (Easton, 1965: 131-132; Ferreira, 1996:403).
After the goal is achieved, the inputs formed by the original external environment generate new needs to be satisfied by achieving a new goal (Easton, 1965:128-129; Ferreira, 1996:404; Cloete and Wissink, 2000:39). An opposing argument underlies conserving and protecting the integrity of the cultural tourism resources, by monitoring overcrowding, overuse of the resource and environmental pollution (McDonald, 1999).
Cultural and heritage tourism brings significant economic benefits and development to cultural and heritage sites, townships and communities. , and (2002) using a benefits-based approach to examine the perceptions of cultural tourism by Hispanic and non-Hispanic residents, showed that Hispanics felt strongly that living along a cultural tourism byway provide cultural benefits and have greater concern for its management.
The philosophical approach to cultural tourism of the stakeholders, providers and policy makers shapes the values and norms of the normative model oriented to develop effective policy around cultural tourism. Local communities developing and promoting cultural and heritage tourism may need as a frame of reference an effective implementation of local and national policies. Cultural and heritage tourism products and services development and promotion require planning and implementing on the basis of policies. Philosophical principles of cultural tourism are required to sustain the design and implementation of a normative model aimed to promote regional economic development policies. The literature on cultural tourism policy is relevant in developing a normative framework. There is a need to develop a policy framework for cultural heritage tourism.
The cultural tourism theory “Creative cities” recommends investing in cultural and heritage goods. Ximba (2009) analyzed and examined the “variables and principles such as understanding of cultural tourism, development and conservation of culture, provision cultural facilities, participation in cultural tourism, application of tourism policies and practices, and the benefits of cultural and heritage tourism”. Cultural tourism is based on the participation in deep cultural experiences, whether, intellectual, psychological, aesthetic and emotional (Russo, and van der Borg, 2002) and as specialized cultural tourism focuses on a small number of geographic sites, townships, cultural unities and entities.
The normative model enables to arrange data and information on cultural tourism activities in such a way that can provide the bases to develop a theoretical framework for cultural tourism. Normative theory is concerned with phenomena and questions regarding the role assumed by government and in general, the public sector (Hanekom & Thornhill, 1983:71).
A normative model of sustainable cultural tourism developed by Ismail (2008) proposes a normative input-output model with an implementation mechanism to ensure sustainable cultural tourism facilitating initiatives for regional development by creating employment and poverty alleviation. The approach of sustainable cultural and heritage tourism development is aimed to improve the environment by meeting the needs of the present communities without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED, 1987:8). Sustainable cultural and heritage tourism development requires the best-practices (Magi & Nzama, 2002) to meet the needs of present guest visitors and host local communities while protecting and fostering enhanced opportunities for future generations.
A sustainable cultural tourism contributes to community development if the tourism stakeholders and business are efficient, fair and environmentally oriented. MacDonald and Lee (2003) examined the cultural rural tourism on a framework considering the roles of culture in community-base partnerships. Their findings suggest that culture in rural tourism development is a valuable resource and community-based partnerships may be very effective.
Cultural tourism enhances local community identity and esteem. It provides the opportunity for greater understanding and communication between people of diverse backgrounds (Lubbe, 2003). Sustainable cultural and heritage tourism development is based on the assumption that resources and facilities are finite, limited, some are not renewable, experience degradation and exhaustion, cannot continue to growth to meet the needs of the mass tourism and a growing population (SARDC, 1994).
The practice of principle of sustainability of cultural and heritage tourism development is the requirement to share the benefits on a permanent basis between the visitors and residents of local communities. To overcome some problems associated with cultural tourism development and these include to take advantage of all the opportunities, know-how, financial support, community co-participation, etc., to maximize the benefits. Community participation in cultural and heritage tourism development should become a practice as the core of a people-centered approach to incorporate them in the decision making process on the development of cultural and heritage resources and in sharing all the benefits (Magi & Nzama, 2008).
Participants in cultural tourism activities expect to get enjoyment, satisfaction or fulfillment from the experience (Shivers 1981). McKercher and Du Cros (2003) test a cultural tourism typology represented by five benefit-based segments tested against a variety of trip, demographic, motivational, preferred activity, awareness, cultural distance and activity variables. They found differences between the groups and suggested that the model presented may be effective in segmenting the cultural tourism market.
Co-participation in decision-making, ownership and benefits of all stakeholders involved in sustainable cultural and heritage tourism is the core of the encounter, experience and enjoyment of resources and opportunities available to the tourist or leisure seeker (Torkildsen 2007).
Cultural and heritage tourism may be a tool to preserve the culture of host communities. The sustainable cultural and heritage tourist policies must focus and norm activities and best-practices oriented to the restoration, enhancement and conservation of resources for both present and continuing future use and enjoyment by visitors and local people (Keyser, 2002). The maintenance, conservation and preservation’s level of resources is related to the level of cultural tourism infrastructure and facilities.
The research undertakes an in-depth literature search to extract a set of normative criteria for cultural tourism and conducted an empirical qualitative survey. From the results of this research, finally a normative model of cultural tourism was designed. The aim of the normative model for sustainable cultural tourism is to facilitate the analysis, design and formulation of cultural tourism policy initiatives. Cultural tourism theory based on normative criteria focuses on formulation, design and implementation of cultural tourism policies. The political external environment influences the governmental tourism policy which in turn, may have an impact on the development of a normative model for cultural tourism. Cultural tourism theory based on normative criteria is necessary for the formulation of cultural tourism policies oriented towards the improvement of regional economic development.
The aim of any cultural tourism policy oriented to the regional development is to influence and attract visitors (Williams and Shaw 1991:263-264) through the generation of demand and the provision of tourism services. Richards (1996) conducted international research on cultural tourism demand and supply and found a rapid increase in both the production and consumption of cultural heritage tourism attractions.
The normative criteria incorporated in the model may be the framework of reference of the external macro environment which in turn may influence the social cultural tourism policy. Social cultural tourism factors which influence the external environment can be determined by implementing an appraisal system which benefits all the stakelholders. The implementation of the normative framework for cultural tourism is dependent of the commitment of tourism stakeholders, government agencies, communities, etc., to play their corresponding roles.
Thus, the stakeholders in cultural
tourism, communities, government agencies, municipal governments, etc., hold
the responsibility to implement initiatives to develop infrastructure, cultural
facilities, cultural tourism attractions, accommodation facilities, etc. The
normative model is appropriate to describe, explain and analyze the activities
of cultural tourism in order to design, develop, promote and implement policies
oriented towards to create employment and improve better quality of life
conditions. A normative model of cultural tourism can be useful to develop
strategies and formulate policies to frame the execution of some relevant
proposals, recommendations and projects. A normative model for cultural tourism
Research on a normative framework for
cultural tourism is deemed necessary to address the current dysfunctional
economic development of the Sothern Region of Jalisco. A systems approach can
be used for the purpose of analyzing and developing a normative framework for
cultural tourism (Bayat and Meyer, 1994:83-10). The aim of the normative model
for cultural tourism is to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, threats and
opportunities in all factors such as infrastructure, facilities, skills, etc.
and above all the design and implementation of cultural tourism policies on the
The normative is designed as a tool for aiming to change the current situations, policies and strategies into a more dynamic, functional and flexible proposal for regional economic development. The use of a normative model for cultural tourism requires qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis as an approach to conduct research.An analysis of the macro external environment includes the microenvironment, macro environment and marketing environment, representing external forces influencing the decision making processes and goal achievement such as economic, social, political, public policies, demographic, legal, technological, etc.
The micro-internal environment of a normative framework for
developing, promoting and sustaining cultural tourism influence suppliers,
distribution channels, customers, competitors, community values, local
politics, legal requirements, etc. The guiding
principles and policies developed by federal and local
governments may be the core criteria for designing and developing the normative
framework of reference for cultural tourism on the
The goal of the normative model for cultural tourism is to attain effective and efficient criteria and performed to design, develop, maintain, promote and enhance the development of cultural tourism. The feedback mechanism of the normative model senses any possible deficiency and deviation of the ongoing outputs coming from the de normative model of cultural tourism in relation to the macro and micro environmental variables and factors.
4. Motivations and satisfaction of cultural tourists
Both domestic and international tourists, the attributes relating to architecture and living culture are key motivators. The place of these factors between nationals and foreigners is reversed, with the themes related to culture alive for those of more international tourists and those related to tangible assets most important to the national tourist. The tourist interested in culture, is also seeking money, climate, landscape and activities that can meet the members of the group that travels.
Mexican cultural tourists are sensitive to the cost-benefit purpose, value destinations around the variety and quality of activities offered, is willing to spend on experiences, but not in services that do not provide clear differences with respect to others who have a interesting style. The economic cost factors, emotional and physical are crucial. The relationship between them and their benefits must be proportionate. A cultural tourist destination and to provide cultural activities featuring comfort and additional options for leisure and entertainment, is more likely to attract tourists or occasional specialized than other destinations. Considered cultural tourists in general are scarce pleasant and attractive cultural offerings for children and adolescents and that failure to appreciate the teaching culture.
5. Operations of the business of cultural tourism
In cultural tourism are companies from various sectors of production. In addition to the tourism and cultural sector, significantly involved companies and institutions involved in urban development and the service sector in general and support areas.
Cultural Tourism Sectors
The cultural tourism agencies include public, private and social, this diversity of actors makes the administration has a greater complexity than other fields of tourism.
In specific areas of tourism and culture whose presence turns excel is very important in those places where the activity takes place: Hotels, tour operators, museums, craft stores, restaurants, tourist guides, cultural sites managed by the INAH, etc.
In the relations of the actors in the system, the basic structure of marketing generates harmonious relations between private actors in the tourism sector. In addition to these key players, cultural tourism has other such as: Cultural tourism players, municipal authorities, state and federal, bodies promoters culture, administration of sites and monuments, nongovernmental organizations, universities, schools and institutes, business of entertainment, carriers, tourists guides, travel agencies, independent travel promoters, associations and Clubs
5. SWOT corporate Analysis
In general, the business outlook is favorable for the development of cultural tourism requires a better use of cultural resources to strengthen the identity of the destinations and the country as there are more strengths than weaknesses. Need greater certainty about the path to take to seize the assets and improve the participation of Cultural tourism companies, there is a willingness to undertake the necessary improvements to enhance the development of these communities and tourism enterprises.
Recognized six areas for action in proposing a series of strategic guidance and tactical approaches that will strengthen and enhance the relationship of tourism activities in their cultural side:
A. Revaluation of the relationship between culture and tourism
B. Systematization of planning and control instruments
C. Organizational strengthening
D. Optimization of cultural heritage management
E. Enriching the cultural tourism offer
F. Rethinking the promotion and marketing
5. Design of cultural tours circuits in Southern Jalisco
A. Cultural tourism circuit "footsteps in the land of great artists
Municipalities that comprise the cultural tour: Zapotlán El Grande, Sayula, San Gabriel Tolimán, Zapotitlan de Vadillo
1. City Tour Historic Center of Painting and Sculpture Guzman City Hall, illustrious men Columnario Zapotlán the Great House where he was born Juan José Arreola Lazaro Cardenas street, Mendoza Portal architecture, temple architecture and sculpture of the Tabernacle, painting, sculpture and architecture of the Third Order temple and former convent, painting, architecture and sculpture of the cathedral, market Paulino Navarro, Portales, birthplace of painter José Clemente Orozco, architecture Town Hall, Palace of the cob architecture, snack restaurant above the Portal Hidalgo , backyards overlooking the Portal Hidalgo. (Estimated time: 4 hours). From 12 to 23 October you can visit the Fair with all its traditions and customs, which culminates with the floats or litter.
Suggested meal in some of the excellent restaurants of Ciudad Guzmán
2. Sayula Tour: Legend of the poem of the soul Sayula and location of the main places referred to, Downtown and portals Sayula, visit the Center of the Immaculate Conception Parish and a former convent, visit the Museum and Casa de la Cultura Juan Rulfo, visit the house of Handicrafts, cutlery shop visit of Ojeda, Juan Rulfo birthplace, architecture and paintings of the Santuario de Guadalupe and a former Franciscan convent. The carnival was staged on Shrove Tuesday to end on Ash Wednesday. (Estimated time 4 hours)
Suggested dinner with typical food and sleep in Sayula in La Casa de los Patios.
Typical breakfast is suggested Sayula
3. Travel in
On the way to San Gabriel Sayula suggested references to places mentioned in the works of Juan Rulfo: Apango, Apulco, etc.; Apango visit. View of Llano Grande, Puerto Los colimotes view, visit the Historic Center of San Gabriel, paintings and sculptures of Trujillo Enrrique the Lord of Mercy Amula, visit the house where Juan Rulfo, visit house where Jose Mojica, priest, composer and singer, a visit to the stones with petroglyphs Telcampana visit, visit to the former estate of Juan Rulfo Apulco where he lived most of his childhood, can be visited if it coincides in time, the Feasts of the Lord is Amula held from 11 to 19 January each year, the feasts of the Lord of Mercy, (Estimated time, 6 hours)
Lunch and dinner is suggested typical local food and stay overnight in
3. Tour of Toliman, and Vadillo Zapotitlan.
It is suggested breakfast at Toliman
Visit the Cerro
Encantado and Petacal, Crescent View, visit the Museum in Toliman. Visit the
Wall of the
Visit the Historical Center of Zapotitlan Vadillo presentation is suggested poems and legends that abound in the folklore of this place, as the Cerro Chino. If it coincides in time can participate in the Feast of the Virgin of Guadalupe from 1 to January 15 and the feasts of Mary Magdalene on 22 July, the religious feast day image borne in procession through the streets ornate people, parade floats, music and dance
Return to Cd Guzman,
cultural tourism circuit ends.
B. Cultural tourism circuit "at the feast eternal"
Municipalities comprising the tour: Tonila, Tuxpan Zapotiltic
Tour the city of
Tour the city of
Tuxpan: Visit the Historic Center of Tuxpan, Atrial view of the Cross dating
from the sixteenth century and visit the parish church, Indian House visit,
shows typical food of Tuxpan (The Cuaxala) Celebration Indian wedding where the
groom dressed in beautiful and intricate costumes, dance performances and
Paixtles Chayacates Indians, in the afternoon visit to the Museum Melquiades
Rubalcaba. If it matches on dates, visitors can participate in the Regional
Competition that takes place Rattles 23 to May 31 and coincides with the
festivities of the Lord of Forgiveness. (Estimated time: 4 hours)
Tour the city of
C. Cultural tours "townhips on the lake’s rivera”.
Municipalities comprising the tour: Gómez Farías, Atoyac, Teocuitatlán, Techaluta, Amacueca.
Atoyac municipality, visit the Historical Centre and view the paintings of Painting. Box .- Painted by Antonio Zamarripa Castellón in 1968. Craft Site visits belts, participation in craft workshops .. If it matches on dates, visitors can witness the Health Festival on Friday of Lent and Carnival, which takes place in the month of February. (Visit estimated at one hour).
Suggested meal in a restaurant Teocuitatlán.
Techaluta Township: Municipal Palace Tour 1878 coincides in time If visitors can witness and participate in the most important celebrations in the town that bullfighting are held from 9 to 16 September; religious holidays in honor of St. Sebastian Martyr taking place from 11 to 20 January, and the Pitaya Annual Fair every May for approximately 8 to 15. (Estimated time: one hour).
IV. Cultural tours
Municipalities comprising the tour: Torres Zacoalco, Atemajac de Brizuela, Tapalpa
Zacoalco de Torres:
Visit the Historic Center of Zacoalco Torres, visit equipales craft centers,
participation in craft workshops, representing Indian wedding. If there is agreement
on dates, visitors can witness the Feast of the Virgin of Guadalupe on January
12, the Lord of Health on August 6, and the feasts of St. Francis of
Atemajac de BRIZUELA: Visit the Historical Center of Brown Atemajac. If there is coincidence of dates, visitors can participate in the festivities of Our Lady of the Defense of 6 to 9 September, the pilgrimage of the Virgen de la Defense 7 and October 8 and the festivities of St. Bartholomew on 24 August. It is suggested to eat at this place the typical food, lamb to the shepherd with punch and sweet fruit preserves.
TAPALPA: Visit the historic center of Tapalpa, typical of mountain people, visit the Chapel of the Soledad, visiting the Casa de la Cultura (Parish of San Antonio de Tapalpa) Juanacatlán Temple and Temple of Our Lady of Mercy, visit to the paper mache crafts, visit the Hostal de la Casona del Manzano, visit the Water House, a visit to the Chapel of the Immaculate Conception, visit the Chapel of Solitude.
6. Business development strategies of cultural tourism
1. Improving the coordination of the various factors involved in the activity for development programs, marketing, participation in the conservation and enhancement of cultural heritage in the areas: intersectional and interdisciplinary.
2. Improve mechanisms for training of Human Resources.
3. Facilitate the development of small and medium companies and grocery services to strengthen the system as a whole
4. Strengthen the bond of action of the companies with the conservation and enhancement of cultural heritage
5. Encourage companies to provide information to tourists on cultural activities that exist in the destination, and to establish awareness programs for the care of heritage and respect for local customs
6. Promoting and using cultural tourism to differentiate the existing tourist facility, opening new market opportunities
7. Diversify mechanisms to promote and market segments with an interest in culture
8. Harnessing the elements of cultural identification of each region to increase differentiation of Mexican companies in domestic and international markets
9. Promote use of sustainable technology (alternative energy, recycling, etc.).
7. Conclusions and recommendations
The Sothern Region of Jalisco has
important potential elements and resources identified as opportunities and
strengths to facilitate the development and promotion as a cultural tourism
destination. This paper identifies that there is a need for a theoretical
framework to design a normative model of sustainable cultural tourism policy in
the Southern Region of the state of Jalisco, México. Cultural tourism
stakeholders and suppliers in the
A normative model for cultural tourism requires the active participation from the tourist stakeholders, business, government agencies and the community, from inception phase until implementation of a program for developing the potential as a cultural tourism destination. The design and implementation of cultural and heritage tourism programs must promote, preserve and enhance the communities´ cultures, folklore, arts, artifacts, etc. Active participation of all cultural tourism stakeholders, governmental agencies and local communities in decision making process, not only legitimates the activities, but provides experience and grounding to design and implement the strategies to pursue the effectiveness of cultural tourism policies (Blench, 1999) and promote responsible and sustainable cultural tourism.
The normative model establishes a set of
normative criteria as an approach to achieve functional cultural tourism on the
Cultural tourism brings the best benefits to the development of local community after an effective implementation of cultural tourism policies. The effectiveness of cultural tourism policies must be assessed. Local communities must attempt to manage cultural tourism resources whilst linking them to the development and economic growth.
Local and municipal government plays an
important role with respect to cultural tourism for the Region of
The design and development of a normative
model is concomitant to a set of recommendations for implementation of cultural
tourism on the
The development of cultural tourism
requires cultural heritage attractions in order to achieve the objectives and
preservation of the tangible and intangible cultural heritage. The scope of
cultural tourism for the
Cultural tourism on the Sothern Jalisco
can be an opportunity for the local communities to market and promote overseas
experience-periods holidays to share and assimilate cultural values and life
experiences taking advantage of the weather conditions and the beautiful
natural landscape. The design of cultural tourism routes is necessary supported
by the necessary to improve the infrastructure. To facilitate promotion and
marketing of cultural tourism on the
Local tourism information centers at the
municipalities play an important role on spreading, guiding and providing
assistance to visitors, rendering products and services alive and meaningful
and sharing responsibilities with tour and guide operators. Also the roles that
play communities, owners of facilities, etc. are vital on these matters. With
respect to development, maintaining, promotion and marketing cultural tourism
on the Region
This paper on cultural tourism addresses the critical shortages of resources, infrastructure and skills amongst tourism stakeholders, business, practitioners, communities, etc., and offers some strategies as recommendations to improve the regional market with new cultural products and services. A differentiation between cultural tourism resources development and cultural production is essential for the design and implementation of cultural tourism strategies.
The implementation of a normative model leads to the development of cultural tourism infrastructure, develop entrepreneurial skills of the community, create opportunities to attract foreign investors and funding agencies, design and implement marketing and promotional strategies, etc., all of which can contribute to the regional economic development of Southern Jalisco.
Fostering cultural tourism on the
may be the start point for further research about cultural and heritage tourism
development, marketing and promotion on the Region
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